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Рыночная экономика

Secondly, inability to overcome inflation is deviated by lacks of an

economic mechanism. In conditions of the centralised economy practically

there was no feedback, there were no effective economic levers, which were

capable to adjust a parity between money and commodity weight; as to

administrative terminators, they “worked” insufficiently effectively. In

system of financial planning state plan played a determining role, instead

of Ministry of finance and not the State Bank, which “worked” under it,

supporting the scheduled tasks financial and money resources without any


Becoming traditional the politics of high rates of economic development

ignored real resource opportunities. To support rates, the capital

investments were constantly increased. In result the growth of consumption

restrained; the efficiency of capital investments fell that negatively had

an effect for economic growth and current manufacture. The means for new

technology did not suffice, and continuous growing of fund of accumulation

did not give desirable result. A problem died any more in amount of a

capital investment, and in their efficiency, structure to reconstruct which

economic mechanism prevented.

The contradiction and deficiencies deleted there are more means, and

the financial and budget terminators were very weak or practically were

absent. Unbalanced took place not only in the consumer market. Its basis -

increasing disproportion in the manufacture, strengthening financially -

financial not of balance, defects in system of planning, in the mechanism

of the money manipulation, in absence of antiinflationary regulation.

Examining the reasons of inflation, the economists will carry out

distinction between two its kinds - “ by inflation of the buyers “

(inflation of demand) and “ by inflation of the sellers “ (inflation of

costs). In effect, it is two, as a rule, interconnected, but unequivalent

reasons of inflation: one lays on the part of demand (surplus of money

resources at the buyers), another - on the part of the offer (growth of

industrial costs).

Depending on character of inflation and rates of increase of

inflationary processes distinguish the following types of inflation:

1) Slow inflation, for which the rather low rates of a rise in prices,

approximately up to ten or several percents per one year are

characteristic. Such inflation is inherent in the majority of the countries

with the advanced market economy, and it is not represented by something

unusual. The average level of inflation on the countries of the European

community has made for last years about 3 - 3,5%.

2) Galloping inflation is difficult in ruling.

The rate of its growth is expressed usually in two-place figures. Such high

rates in the 80-th years were observed, for example, in many countries of

Latin America, some countries of Southern Asia. The galloping rise in

prices shows itself unequally and has not the strictly designated

quantitative parameters. The inflationary processes depend on a level of

development of the country, social economic structure unsimilar regulation

of price processes. In the period after war - the period of capitalism has

gone through two large waves of inflation: at transition from military

economy of a market type (1945-1952) and under influence “ of petroleum

shocks ”, is sharp shocked all structure of the world and internal prices

(1974-1981). But it was possible to western countries to stop inflationary

processes, using various methods of antiinflationary regulation. For the

small countries, for example of Sweden, it was important to avoid imported

inflation, for what the increase of the prices of national currency was

used. Other countries resorted to methods of restraint of inflation by

means of money-credit politics.

3) The greatest danger represents super-inflation. Its conditional

boundary - monthly (within three-four months) rise in prices more than 50%,

and annual will be expressed four numbers in figures. The feature super-

inflation that it appears practically unguided; the usual functional

interrelations and habitual levers of management of the prices do not work.

On complete power the printed machine tool works, the gamble develops mad.

Manufacture will be disorganised. To stop or to brake super-inflation it is

necessary to resort to extreme measures. But there is no unequivocal

representation about that, how to struggle with super-inflation. The rather

inconsistent recipes are assumed various, quite often.

To outstrip inevitable, increase, expected by all, of the prices, the

owners of “hot” money aspire as soon as possible gets rid of them. In

result is developed great demand; those goods are bought up first of all

which can serve a means of partial preservation of the savings (real

estate, subjects of art, precious metals). The people work under pressure

“inflationary crisis ”, and it grow a rise in prices, and the inflation

begins to feed itself.

Classical example super-inflation - conditions which has been usual in

Germany and a number of other countries after the First World War. In

Germany in 1923 the level of a rise in prices was estimated 10 numbers and

12 numbers by numbers; the wages should be spent immediately, for within

day of the price on products raised repeatedly.

The process of inflation is inconsistent. On the one hand, the money

profits are increased, the capital investments extend, and with another -

the rise in prices conducts to depreciation of the unused capital. Win not

everything, and, first of all strong firms having the modern equipment,

perfect organisation of manufacture. In the best rule(situation) there are

social groups living on the not fixed incomes, if their nominal incomes

will grow by rate overtaking a rise in prices.

From inflation the people who take money on credit can win, if not is

stipulated, that percent for the credit should take into account an

inflationary rise in prices.

But whichever there were positive functions of inflation, leaving from

under the control and even remaining rather weak, adjusted, the inflation

renders on a course of economic development the whole complex especially of

negative phenomena.

To negative consequences of inflationary processes concern:

- Decrease of the real incomes of the population;

- Depreciation of the savings of the population (the increase of

percents on the contributions, as a rule, does not compensate fall of the

real sizes of the savings);

- The loss at the manufacturers of interest in creation of the

qualitative goods (is increased release of the goods of poor quality,

manufacture of the rather cheap goods) is reduced;

- Restriction of sale of agricultural products in city by the rural

manufacturers by virtue of fall of interest, in expectation of increase of

the prices on the foodstuffs;

- Deterioration of conditions of life mainly at the representatives of

social groups with the firm incomes (pensioners serving, students, which

incomes are formed for the account state budget);

- Easing positions of imperious structures (is reduced trust to the

programs and measures planned and carried out government).

The management of inflation represents a major problem money-credit and

in the whole economic politics. The ways of management are ambiguous, are

inconsistent on the consequences. The range of parameters for realisation

of such politics can be rather narrow: on the one hand, it is required to

constrain growth of an inflationary spiral, and with another - to support

stimulus of manufacture to create conditions for saturation of the market

by the goods.

The management of inflation assumes use of the complex measures

assisting in a certain measure to combine an insignificant rise in prices

with stabilisation of the incomes. The tools of management of process

differ depending on character and rate of inflation, features of economic

conditions, specificity of an economic mechanism of the different


For antiinflationary regulation two are used such as economic politics:

1) Politics directed on reduction of budget deficiency, restriction of

credit expansion, restraint of money issue. In conformity with material the

recipes apply targets - regulation of rate of a gain of money weight in the

certain limits - according to rate of growth of a total national product

2) Politics of price control and incomes having by the purpose to co-

ordinate growth of earnings with a rise in prices. One of means serves

index of the incomes determined by a level of a minimum conditions of life

or a standard consumer basket and connected with dynamics of an index of

the prices. For restraint of the undesirable phenomena the limits of

increase or freezing of wages can be established, to be limited

distribution of the credits etc.

The influence on inflationary process in conditions of a sharp rise in

prices requires special measures. So, for elimination of consequences “ of

a petroleum shock ”, struck on economy of USA in second half of 70-th

years, the registration rates were increased, the requirements to the sizes

of reserve funds are amplified, the system of the taxation is stipulated.

To lower rates of an inflationary rise in prices it was possible not at

once: from 13-14 of % in 1979 they have decreased to 4 % after about three

years - in 1982.

As the experience testifies, to stop inflation with the help of one

organisational measures rather difficulty if not to tell it is impossible.

The structural reform directed on overcoming of disproportion’s, that has

arisen in economy is necessary for this purpose.

The concrete methods of restraint of inflation, “dose” and sequence of

application of means, attracted for treatment, depend on statement of the

correct diagnosis. To put the diagnosis - means, to determine character of

inflation, to allocate the factors, basic and connected to them, which

makes the growth of inflationary processes. In this case it is not

necessary to expect for any ready circuits, and series of extreme measures

to finish with inflation. Each inflation is specific and assumes

application of such recipes, which correspond to character and depth of


Constant consequence in particular of inflationary process is the

unemployment. By virtue of importance of this problem the state accepts the

special measures for regulation of the market of work.

The market of work - important sphere economic and social - political

life of a society. In the market of work labour receives an estimation

cost, the conditions of its employment, including size of wages, working

conditions, opportunity of reception of education, professional growth,

guarantee of employment etc are defined. The market of work reflects the

basic tendencies in changes of employment, its(her) basic structures

(branch, vocational, demographic), i.e. in a public division of labour,

mobility of a labour, scales and changes of unemployment.

The unemployment is a social economic phenomenon, at which the part of

a labour (economically of active population) is not engaged in manufacture

of the goods and services. The unemployed alongside with engaged form a

labour of the country. In real economic life the unemployment acts as

excess of a labour above demand for it(her). To the unemployed, according

to statistics of many advanced countries, the persons who have been not

engaged on the moment of realisation of interrogation about the status of

their employment, undertaking attempts concern to find work within the

previous four weeks and registered on labour exchange.

Heavy for the countries of West were 30 years of our century. In USA

the rate of unemployment has reached 25%. The diagram showing the dynamics

of a rate of unemployment in USA for 100 years is rather curious (1890-


If the share of the unemployed makes 1-3 % in general army of work, not

it is accepted to count employment insignificant. Especially dangerous in

social sense not employment (absence of work within 40 weeks and more) is

long chronic.

It is important to emphasise, that to the unemployed usually carry not

only dismissed on the various reasons, but also persons voluntary left

works and undertaking attempt to find new. The structure of unemployment

for its reasons includes four basic categories of a labour:

1) Lost work as a result of dismissal;

2) Voluntary left work;

3) Come on the market of work after a break;

4) For the first time come on the market of work.

The parity of these categories depends, first of all, on a phase of a

business cycle.

The monthly average rate of unemployment within the given year pays off

under the formula:

UE*100 of %

Lue = ------------------


Where Lue - level (norm) of unemployment, %; UE - monthly average

number of the unemployed; LFc - number of a civil labour.

There are some concepts treating a phenomenon of unemployment. In

Mark’s of the theory it usually connect to process of accumulation of the

capital, at which the requirement for alive work (variable capital) is

increased slower, than in machines, equipment (constant capital). In

western economic science the point of view dominates, according to which

the unemployment in the basis reflects an economic feasibility of use of

resources, just as, say degree of loading of capacities reflects expediency

and efficiency of use of a fixed capital. A so-called natural rate of

unemployment reflecting structural disproportion in the market of work

(between structure of a supply and demand of a labour on qualification, by

demographic and other criteria). To natural unemployment carry also so-

called friction unemployment connected mainly to voluntary transition of

the workers from one work on another and to seasonal fluctuations in demand

for a labour.

In USA in the 60-th years as a natural rate of unemployment the

parameter in 4,3 %, in 70-th - already 6,6 %, in 80-th - about 7% was

considered. The excess of unemployment above a natural level is determined

in the basic cyclic factor, i.e. condition of a conjuncture in the country.

Changes of unemployment is influenced, besides demographic factors,

with changes in structure of economy, condition of foreign trade and export

of the capital, scales of the military charges, economic and social

politics of the state.

Owing to variety of internal regulators of the market of a labour, and

also by virtue of social importance of its effective functioning the market

of work requires the qualified regulation.

It is possible to allocate four basic directions of state regulation of

the market of work. First, it is the programs on stimulation of growth of

employment and increase of number of workplaces in public sector, secondly,

programs directed on preparation and retraining of a labour, and, thirdly,

program of assistance to hiring of a labour. Besides the government accepts

the programs on social insurance of unemployment, i.e. allocates means for

the grants with the unemployed.

Within the framework of this program in USA, for example, in after war

period - hundred thousand workplaces in public sector (in sphere of public

services - education, health services, municipal services, and also in

construction of public buildings and structures and in remaking works) were

created. With the help of these programs the rate of unemployment at the

end of the 70-th years was artificial is underestimated on 0,8 percentage


The more and more important meaning gets state assistance to hiring.

So, service of giving jobs in USA having more of 2500 local agencies

(labour exchanges), is engaged in registration of the unemployed, tries to

find by it vacancies, will carry out testing the applicants for work for

definition of their qualification.

The listed directions do not settle all measures of influence of the

state on the market of work. Alongside with them there is a complex of

measures of indirect regulation of a labour: tax, money-credit and

amortisation politics of government. Besides the considerable influence on

the market of work renders also legislation - about social maintenance,

about the labour relations, about the equal civil rights etc.

The measures of indirect regulation of the market of a labour

simultaneously are also measures economic of regulation and influence a

conjuncture in the country.

The special place in system of regulation of the market of work is

occupied with labour exchange (service of employment, service to assistance

to hiring), being one of the important structures of a market economic

mechanism. It represents special establishment, which is carrying out

intermediary functions in the market of a labour. In the majority of the

countries of labour exchange are state and carry out the activity under the

direction of the ministry of work or body, similar to it(him). At the same

time in the market of work alongside with state services of employment the

large number of private intermediate firms functions, the efficiency of

which activity is very high.

The basic directions of activity of labour exchanges are:

1) Registration of the unemployed;

2) Registration of vacant places;

3) Giving jobs to the unemployed and other persons wishing to get a


4) Study of a conjuncture of the market of work and granting of the

information about it(her);

5) Testing the persons wishing to offer work;

6) Professional orientation and professional retraining of the


7) Payment of the grants.

The majority of the economists believe, that the problem of

unemployment and other disproportion in the market of work can be softened

only with the help of a combination of various means - stimulation of

economic growth, reduction of working week, creation of an effective system

of retraining of the staff.

Thus, the modern state regulation of the market of work represents a

complex of economic, administrative, organisational and other measures.

The existing nowadays system of state regulation of economy has

developed not at once. During the development it has passed some stages:

1) Creation of general favourable conditions for reproduction of the

private capital; a concentration of efforts of the state on development of

the labour, tax, trade, social legislation, customs politics, on

maintenance of stability of money. Construction and purchase of objects in

raw and infrastuctural branches.

2) The unmatched among them actions of an anticrisis and structural

orientation, attempt to influence employment and prices.

3) Experiments with use of money-credit and budget means of regulation

of economy. A wave of a privatisation of objects of a state ownership.

4) Transition in a number of the countries to branch and regional

intermediate term programming; attempts to increase effectiveness of state

regulation of economy by study of compatibility and interchangeability of

tools of regulation, definition of their efficiency.

5) Realisation in the increasing number of the advanced countries of

nation-wide intermediate term programming in a combination to development

long-term perspective ways. More and more address, dosing and complex use

of tools of regulation.

6) Measure as agreed of nation-wide intermediate term programs at an

interstate level in framework integration of associations; steps in a

direction national of planning.

On scales, the tools and efficiency of state regulation of economy

decisive influence rendered tasks rising before economy of the separate

countries, material opportunities of the states reflected in a share to

them of a total internal product and in the absolute sizes of means, which

it is ready to use on state regulation of economy accrued experience and

successes in scientific development of problems of state economic politics

in conditions of a market economy.

The mechanism of state regulation of economy is constantly improved,

irrespective of, the governments on principles of economic politics are

guided or are inclined to use more rigid budget tools of regulation. In

modern conditions the practice of state regulation of economy has appeared

rather productive to not admit general crises and social - dangerous of

scales of unemployment.

The literature.

1) Economy. The textbook for economic academies, high schools and

faculties. Under edition of the candidate of economic sciences, senior

lecturer of AMPERE-SECOND. Bulatova. Publishing house. Moscow 1995.

2) Macroeconomic. The manual. M.K. Bunkina,V.A. Semenov. Publishing

house “ Moscow 1995.

3) Social market economy. The German way. Chaints Lampert. Publishing

house “Business”. Moscow 1994.

4) Market economy. The textbook. Volume 1, part 1. Publishing house

“Somintek”. Moscow 1992.

Страницы: 1, 2, 3, 4

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