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Рыночная экономика

the discontent by an economic situation starts. The extreme forms (strike,

flight of the capital). The operative information, whenever possible

authentic forecasts the behaviour of the economic subjects is necessary to

governmental bodies in case of realisation of this or that measure of state

regulation of economy. For this purpose there is a fulfilled mechanism as

biographical interrogations. Through a biographical method the efficiency

of toolkit budget, a special way of regulation, influence of state

purchases and orders, investments in public sector are investigated. This

method has turned out to be the working tool of state regulation of economy

ensuring a feedback between regulating bodies and carriers of economic


So, it was the ideal picture of dependence of state regulation of

economy from economic interests, mechanism of this dependence and feedback.

In real life weight of rejections from model - is observed there is a

struggle between separate groups of interests for influence on bodies of

regulation, a wide circulation has received these method, the facts of

corruption in bodies of state economic politics in the various countries

are known. But the mechanism of state regulation of economy functions all

the same not on rejections, but by rules.

The objects of state regulation of economy are spheres, branches,

regions, and also situations, phenomenon and condition of social economic

life of the country, where have arisen or there can be difficulties,

problems not permitted automatically or permitted in a long-term future,

while the removal of these problems urgently is necessary for normal

functioning of economy and maintenance of social stability.

The basic objects of state regulation of economy is:

1. Business cycle;

2. Sectors, branch and regional structure of a economy;

3. Conditions of accumulation of the capital;

4. Employment;

5. The money reference(manipulation);

6. Payment balance;

7. The prices

8. Research also is skilled - design works having by the purpose

development and realisation of scientific ideas;

9. Conditions of a competition;

10. The social attitudes(relations), including the attitudes(relation)

between the employers and working on hiring, and also social


11. Preparation and retraining of the staff;

12. Environment;

13. Foreign economic relations.

Obviously, the transferred objects can carry completely various

character, they cover macroeconomic processes - economic cycle,

accumulation of the capital in scales of the country, separate branches,

territorial complexes and even the relation between the subjects – the

condition of a competition, the relations between trade unions and

associations of the businessmen, between state regulating bodies.

Let's consider major of them.

The essence of state anticyclic politics, or regulation of an economic

conjuncture, is, that during crises and depressions should stimulate demand

for the goods and services, capital investments and employment. For this

purpose the additional financial privileges are given to the private

capital, the state charges and investments are increased. In conditions of

long and rough rise in a national economy there can be dangerous phenomena

– using of commodity stocks, growth of import and deterioration of payment

balance, excess of demand on a labour above the offer and from here

unreasonable growth of wages and prices. In such situation, the task of

state regulation of economy - to brake growth of demand, capital

investments and manufacture whenever possible to reduce overproduction of

the goods and less products of the capitals and, thus, to reduce depth and

duration of possible recession of manufacture, investments and employment

in the future.

The state regulation of economy in the field of branch and territorial

structure also is carried out through financial stimulus and state capital

investments, which provide privileged conditions to separate branches and

regions. In one cases the support appears to branches and territorial units

which are taking place in a condition of long crisis; in others - the

development of new branches and kinds of manufactures - carriers of

scientific and technical progress called to result to progressive

structural changes inside branches, between branches and in all a national

economy as a whole. The increase of its efficiency and competitiveness is

encouraged. At the same time can be the stopping of excessive concentration

of manufacture arranged on.

Major object of state economy regulation is the accumulation of the

capital. Manufacture, assignment and capitalisation of the profit always

serve an overall objective of economic activity in market economy,

therefore state economic politics of encouragement of accumulation first of

all corresponds to economic interests to the subjects of an economy.

Simultaneously state regulation of accumulation is also used to serve also

to other objects of state economy regulation. Creating additional stimulus

and opportunities in different time to all investors or their separate

groups on branches and territories the regulating bodies influence a

business cycle and structure.

The regulation of employment is maintenance normal from the point of

view of market economy of parity between a supply and demand of a labour.

Parity should satisfy requirement of economy for the qualified and

disciplined workers, which wages serve for them a sufficient motivation to

work. However parity between a supply and demand should not conduct to

excessive growth of wages, which can be reflected negative in national

competitiveness. The sharp decrease of employment is undesirable also, it

conducts to increase the army of the unemployed, decrease of consumer

demanded, tax receipts, growth of the charges on the grants and, most

important, it is dangerous by social consequences.

Constant object of attention of state regulating bodies is money

manipulation. The basic orientation of regulation of money manipulation -

struggle with inflation representing serious danger to economy. The

regulation of money manipulation influences and other objects - condition

of accumulation, price, social relations.

The condition of payment balance is an objective parameter of economic

health of the country. In all countries with a market economy the state

constantly carries out operative and strategic regulation of payment

balance by influence on export and import, movement of the capital,

increase and downturn of rates of national currencies, marketcontractual

politics and participation in the international economic integration.

One more of the main objects of regulation - price. Changes and

structure of the prices reflect a condition of economy. At the same time

prices strongly influence structure of economy, condition of capital

investments, stability of national currency, social atmosphere.

The state regulating instances aspire to influence and other objects of

state regulation of economy, for example, to interest private concerns in

development of scientific researches and introduction of their results, in

export of goods, capitals, both saved knowledge and experience are studied

and the laws on observance of rules of a competition, social protection,

protection of an environment are improved.

The objects of state economy regulation of differ depending on a level

of tasks, solved by them. It is the following hierarchical levels: a level

of firm; region; branches; sectors of economy (industry, agriculture,

service); economy as a whole (economic cycle; the money manipulation; the

prices); global (social relations, ecology); economic-political relations

with foreign countries, integration processes).

The general purpose of state regulation of economy is the economic and

social stability and strengthening existing building inside the country and

abroad, adaptation to its varied conditions.

From this general purpose the tree so-called of the concrete purposes

is distributed, without which realisation the general purpose can not be

achieved. These concrete purposes indissoluble are connected with objects

of state regulation of economy. The purpose - alignment of a business cycle

- is directed on the object, that is on a business cycle; improvement of an

environment - on an environment etc.

It is obvious, that the purposes, first, uncommon on importance and

scales and, secondly are in close interrelation. More often one purpose can

not be put and is achieved without dependence from others. For example, it

is impossible to present stimulation НИОКР without creation of favourable

conditions of accumulation of the capital, without alignment of a

conjuncture, perfection of branch structure of economy, stable money


The listed purposes partially block each other, one can appear

temporarily more important and to subordinate to herself others depending

on a real economic and social situation, level of comprehension of this

situation by the subjects of state regulation of economy and from

established by governmental bodies on the given interval of time of system

of priorities of the purposes. Any of the above named purposes can serve,

to promote or to interfere with achievement of other purpose. The concrete

purposes inside a tree of the purposes can be primary, secondary, tertiary

etc. For example, in conditions of crisis the primary purpose becomes an

exit from crisis in narrow concrete sense - revival of a conjuncture. All

other purposes submit to it.

The means of state regulation are subdivided on administrative and


The administrative means are not connected with creation of additional

material stimulus or danger of financial damage. They are based on force of

state authority and include measures of an interdiction, sanction and


For example, the French authorities have forbidden to build the new

industrial enterprises within the limits of Parisian agglomerations, and

for achievement of this purpose they did not increase the taxes by the new

enterprises, have not entered rude the penalties, which could be economic

measures, and simply have stopped licensing for new industrial


Or, the government of the Netherlands has solved to use former naval

base as passenger and trade port, by creating, thus, new sphere of the

appendix of the capital. In result in area of port the economic activity

has increased.

The administrative means of regulation in the advanced countries with

market economy are used in insignificant scales. Their sphere of action

basically is limited to protection of an environment and creation of the

minimal household conditions rather poorly of socially protected layers of

the population. However in critical situations their role strongly grows,

for example, during war, emergency in economy. The most large-scale

administrative actions on regulation of economy in after War period of

Japan were currency reformed and made smaller of conducting concerns.

The economic means of state regulation are subdivided into means of

money credit and budget politics.

The independent complex tool of state regulation of economy (and

simultaneously by its object) is the public sector in economy. The maximum

form of state regulation of economy is a state economic programming

covering the numerous purposes and all tooling of state regulation of

economy. About public sector and economic programming the speech will go


The basic economic means are:

1) Regulation of the registration rate (discount politics

which is carried out by the central bank);

2) Establishment and change of the sizes of the minimal

reserves, which financial institutions of the country are obliged to

keep in the central bank;

3) Operation of official bodies in the market of valuable

papers, such as issue of the state obligations, trade by them and


Through these tools the state aspires to change a parity of a supply

and demand in the financial market (market of the loan capitals) in a

desirable direction. In process of relative decrease of a role of the

markets of the free capitals in financing capital investments and

especially in connection with reduction of a role of a share stock exchange

and growth of self-maintenance of the large companies by financial assets

the effectiveness of these tools in the most advanced countries has

weakened a little.

The direct state economic regulation is carried out by means of budget

politics. The state budget is an annual plan of the state charges and

sources of the incomes of their financial covering. The project of the

budget annually is discussed and is accepted by a legislative body -

parliament of the country, state or government by assembly. After the end

of financial the year the proxy representatives of the executive authority

report about the activity on mobilisation of the incomes and realisation of

the charges in conformity with accepted in the previous year by the law on

the budget.

The state budget always represents the compromise reflecting a parity

of forces of the basic groups of carriers of various social economic

interests. The charges of the state budget carry out functions of

political, social and economic regulation.

The first place in the budget charges is occupied with social clauses:

the special grants, education, public health services etc. In it the

overall objective of budget politics, as well as all state economic

politics in general - stabilisation, strengthening and adaptation existing

social economic building to varying conditions is shown. These charges are

called to soften differentiation of social groups, it is inevitable

peculiar to market character.

In expenses for economic needs the budget grants to agriculture are

usually allocated. Any state can not be interested in ruin the peasantry,

farmers. And though in the external economic politics of government

sometimes temporarily endow interests of the domestic manufacturers of the

agrarian goods, supposing foreign agricultural production on a home market

in reply to concession of the trade partners, as a rule governments support

average and large farmers land.

The charges on arms and material maintenance of external politics, and

also administrative charge influence demand for consumer goods and


To the tactical purposes of budget regulation the charges on an

internal state duty (for example, prescheduled repayment of a part of the

debt), sizes of the charges on the credits both grants to the private and

state enterprises, agriculture, on creation and perfection of objects of an

infrastructure, on purchase of arms and military construction serve.

The sizes of these charges essentially influence scales of demand and

size of the investments. During crises and depressions the charges of the

state budget on the economic purposes, as a rule, grow, and in time when of

slowing conjuncture - are reduced.

The charges on crediting of export, insurance of the export credits and

taken out capital financed from the budget, stimulate export and in the

long-term plan improve payment balance, open for a national economy the new

foreign markets, promote strengthening of national currency, maintenance of

deliveries on a home market of the necessary goods because of a boundary.

It is the external economic aspect of politics of the budget charges.

The effectiveness of state regulation of economy with the help of the

budget charges depends, first, on the relative sizes of the spent sums;

secondly, from structure of these charges; thirdly, from efficiency of use

of each unit of spent means.

The main tools of mobilisation of financial assets for a covering of

the state charges are the taxes. They also are widely used for influence on

activity of the subjects of economy. It is a special role of the taxes. But

main role of the taxes - regulating. The state regulation through the taxes

depends in a decisive degree on a choice of tax system, and also from kinds

and sizes of tax privileges.

The taxes in state regulation of economy play a double role: on the one

hand, it is the main source of financing of the state charges, the material

basis of budget politics, on the other hand, is the tool of regulation. A

task of state budget bodies - not simply to impose with the taxes those or

other sources of receipt of means and to create the adjusted mechanism of

influence on economic behaviour of the legal and physical persons is thin.

For this purpose temporarily or selectively given tax discounts, delay of

payment of the taxes are used.

The special place among means of state regulation of economy which is

carried out through the taxes, plays accelerated amortisation of a fixed

capital and connected with it(him) formation(education) and realisation of

the latent reserves carried out within the framework of the sanctions of

the ministries of the finance.

Accelerated amortisation of a fixed capital in modern conditions is by

the main means of stimulation of accumulation, structural changes in

economy and important tool of influence on an economic cycle - the

employment. Essence it in a separation of physical process amortisation of

machines, equipment, buildings and structures from the production costs of

carry of cost of material carriers of a fixed capital on the made goods and

services. Changing the rates and order amortisation, the state regulating

bodies determine that part of the clean profit, which can be released from

the taxes by inclusion in production costs and then is listed in

amortisation fund for financing in the further new capital investments.

At check of correctness of payment of the tax from the profit the tax

inspectors agree with accounting of production costs or services only if

the amortisation deductions were made in conformity with norms solved by

the ministry of the finance. The size of the balance profit, rate and size

of the tax, and also paid dividends depends on it.

The variation of norms accelerated amortisation of a fixed capital is

widely used in all advanced countries as a means of state tactical and

structural politics, and also for stimulation of scientific researches and

introduction of their results, for financing nature protection of measures.

The effect of a variation of norms of amortisation deductions is swept up

within a favourable conjuncture, i.e. in the periods of slowing and crises

the effectiveness of amortisation politics weakens. The worse conjuncture,

the more difficult & is to realise profit, it is less than opportunities

for self-financing, and the amortisation privileges given by the state,

becomes less attractive stimulus for the private investments. The

privileges on accelerated amortisation are equivalent to reduction of

receipts from the taxes from profits in the state budget. Result can be

increase of other taxes or growth state duty.

The state capital investments are carried out substantially in public

sector of economy playing a major role in state regulation of economy. It

is simultaneously object and tool of influence on a private enterprise.

The public sector represents a complex of economic objects, wholly or

partially belonging to the central and local state bodies. The public

sector existed in many countries long before development of capitalism,

including mail, partially transport service, manufacturing of the weapon

etc. On a measure forming systems of state regulation of economy the state

built, redeemed at the private proprietors economic objects, mainly in

sphere of an infrastructure, heavy industry, which functioning was always

favourably and it is necessary for a national economy, but not always it is

favourable from the point of view of the private capital.

In one country the public sector has arisen basically as a result of

nationalisation of a number of branches and enterprises (in France, Italy,

Great Britain, Austria), in others the state built or got ruined economic

objects (in USA, Sweden, Japan). In the first group of the countries the

share of public sector in national riches is higher, than in second.

Significant parts of public sector are objects of an infrastructure, in

the majority unprofitable. Other part - the state enterprises in raw and

power branches, where are required the large investments, and turnover of

the capital slow. Profitability of state-owned firms, as a rule, below,

than private. A part of public sector is packages of the actions of the

mixed private-state companies.

The existence in conditions of a market economy of sectors, which in

the activity is guided by principles a little bit distinguished from

principles of private concerns, allows using public sector for the decision

of nation-wide economic tasks, increasing money of a private enterprise.

The exclusive profit, and frequently and profit in general, is not the

paramount purpose of activity of public sector in an infrastructure, power,

raw branches, НИОКР, in preparation and retraining of the staff, in the

field of protection of an environment, as high profits nobody requires of

these spheres, and the losses become covered from the budget. Therefore

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