the discontent by an economic situation starts. The extreme forms (strike,
flight of the capital). The operative information, whenever possible
authentic forecasts the behaviour of the economic subjects is necessary to
governmental bodies in case of realisation of this or that measure of state
regulation of economy. For this purpose there is a fulfilled mechanism as
biographical interrogations. Through a biographical method the efficiency
of toolkit budget, a special way of regulation, influence of state
purchases and orders, investments in public sector are investigated. This
method has turned out to be the working tool of state regulation of economy
ensuring a feedback between regulating bodies and carriers of economic
So, it was the ideal picture of dependence of state regulation of
economy from economic interests, mechanism of this dependence and feedback.
In real life weight of rejections from model - is observed there is a
struggle between separate groups of interests for influence on bodies of
regulation, a wide circulation has received these method, the facts of
corruption in bodies of state economic politics in the various countries
are known. But the mechanism of state regulation of economy functions all
the same not on rejections, but by rules.
The objects of state regulation of economy are spheres, branches,
regions, and also situations, phenomenon and condition of social economic
life of the country, where have arisen or there can be difficulties,
problems not permitted automatically or permitted in a long-term future,
while the removal of these problems urgently is necessary for normal
functioning of economy and maintenance of social stability.
The basic objects of state regulation of economy is:
1. Business cycle;
2. Sectors, branch and regional structure of a economy;
3. Conditions of accumulation of the capital;
5. The money reference(manipulation);
6. Payment balance;
7. The prices
8. Research also is skilled - design works having by the purpose
development and realisation of scientific ideas;
9. Conditions of a competition;
10. The social attitudes(relations), including the attitudes(relation)
between the employers and working on hiring, and also social
11. Preparation and retraining of the staff;
13. Foreign economic relations.
Obviously, the transferred objects can carry completely various
character, they cover macroeconomic processes - economic cycle,
accumulation of the capital in scales of the country, separate branches,
territorial complexes and even the relation between the subjects – the
condition of a competition, the relations between trade unions and
associations of the businessmen, between state regulating bodies.
Let's consider major of them.
The essence of state anticyclic politics, or regulation of an economic
conjuncture, is, that during crises and depressions should stimulate demand
for the goods and services, capital investments and employment. For this
purpose the additional financial privileges are given to the private
capital, the state charges and investments are increased. In conditions of
long and rough rise in a national economy there can be dangerous phenomena
– using of commodity stocks, growth of import and deterioration of payment
balance, excess of demand on a labour above the offer and from here
unreasonable growth of wages and prices. In such situation, the task of
state regulation of economy - to brake growth of demand, capital
investments and manufacture whenever possible to reduce overproduction of
the goods and less products of the capitals and, thus, to reduce depth and
duration of possible recession of manufacture, investments and employment
in the future.
The state regulation of economy in the field of branch and territorial
structure also is carried out through financial stimulus and state capital
investments, which provide privileged conditions to separate branches and
regions. In one cases the support appears to branches and territorial units
which are taking place in a condition of long crisis; in others - the
development of new branches and kinds of manufactures - carriers of
scientific and technical progress called to result to progressive
structural changes inside branches, between branches and in all a national
economy as a whole. The increase of its efficiency and competitiveness is
encouraged. At the same time can be the stopping of excessive concentration
of manufacture arranged on.
Major object of state economy regulation is the accumulation of the
capital. Manufacture, assignment and capitalisation of the profit always
serve an overall objective of economic activity in market economy,
therefore state economic politics of encouragement of accumulation first of
all corresponds to economic interests to the subjects of an economy.
Simultaneously state regulation of accumulation is also used to serve also
to other objects of state economy regulation. Creating additional stimulus
and opportunities in different time to all investors or their separate
groups on branches and territories the regulating bodies influence a
business cycle and structure.
The regulation of employment is maintenance normal from the point of
view of market economy of parity between a supply and demand of a labour.
Parity should satisfy requirement of economy for the qualified and
disciplined workers, which wages serve for them a sufficient motivation to
work. However parity between a supply and demand should not conduct to
excessive growth of wages, which can be reflected negative in national
competitiveness. The sharp decrease of employment is undesirable also, it
conducts to increase the army of the unemployed, decrease of consumer
demanded, tax receipts, growth of the charges on the grants and, most
important, it is dangerous by social consequences.
Constant object of attention of state regulating bodies is money
manipulation. The basic orientation of regulation of money manipulation -
struggle with inflation representing serious danger to economy. The
regulation of money manipulation influences and other objects - condition
of accumulation, price, social relations.
The condition of payment balance is an objective parameter of economic
health of the country. In all countries with a market economy the state
constantly carries out operative and strategic regulation of payment
balance by influence on export and import, movement of the capital,
increase and downturn of rates of national currencies, marketcontractual
politics and participation in the international economic integration.
One more of the main objects of regulation - price. Changes and
structure of the prices reflect a condition of economy. At the same time
prices strongly influence structure of economy, condition of capital
investments, stability of national currency, social atmosphere.
The state regulating instances aspire to influence and other objects of
state regulation of economy, for example, to interest private concerns in
development of scientific researches and introduction of their results, in
export of goods, capitals, both saved knowledge and experience are studied
and the laws on observance of rules of a competition, social protection,
protection of an environment are improved.
The objects of state economy regulation of differ depending on a level
of tasks, solved by them. It is the following hierarchical levels: a level
of firm; region; branches; sectors of economy (industry, agriculture,
service); economy as a whole (economic cycle; the money manipulation; the
prices); global (social relations, ecology); economic-political relations
with foreign countries, integration processes).
The general purpose of state regulation of economy is the economic and
social stability and strengthening existing building inside the country and
abroad, adaptation to its varied conditions.
From this general purpose the tree so-called of the concrete purposes
is distributed, without which realisation the general purpose can not be
achieved. These concrete purposes indissoluble are connected with objects
of state regulation of economy. The purpose - alignment of a business cycle
- is directed on the object, that is on a business cycle; improvement of an
environment - on an environment etc.
It is obvious, that the purposes, first, uncommon on importance and
scales and, secondly are in close interrelation. More often one purpose can
not be put and is achieved without dependence from others. For example, it
is impossible to present stimulation НИОКР without creation of favourable
conditions of accumulation of the capital, without alignment of a
conjuncture, perfection of branch structure of economy, stable money
The listed purposes partially block each other, one can appear
temporarily more important and to subordinate to herself others depending
on a real economic and social situation, level of comprehension of this
situation by the subjects of state regulation of economy and from
established by governmental bodies on the given interval of time of system
of priorities of the purposes. Any of the above named purposes can serve,
to promote or to interfere with achievement of other purpose. The concrete
purposes inside a tree of the purposes can be primary, secondary, tertiary
etc. For example, in conditions of crisis the primary purpose becomes an
exit from crisis in narrow concrete sense - revival of a conjuncture. All
other purposes submit to it.
The means of state regulation are subdivided on administrative and
The administrative means are not connected with creation of additional
material stimulus or danger of financial damage. They are based on force of
state authority and include measures of an interdiction, sanction and
For example, the French authorities have forbidden to build the new
industrial enterprises within the limits of Parisian agglomerations, and
for achievement of this purpose they did not increase the taxes by the new
enterprises, have not entered rude the penalties, which could be economic
measures, and simply have stopped licensing for new industrial
Or, the government of the Netherlands has solved to use former naval
base as passenger and trade port, by creating, thus, new sphere of the
appendix of the capital. In result in area of port the economic activity
The administrative means of regulation in the advanced countries with
market economy are used in insignificant scales. Their sphere of action
basically is limited to protection of an environment and creation of the
minimal household conditions rather poorly of socially protected layers of
the population. However in critical situations their role strongly grows,
for example, during war, emergency in economy. The most large-scale
administrative actions on regulation of economy in after War period of
Japan were currency reformed and made smaller of conducting concerns.
The economic means of state regulation are subdivided into means of
money credit and budget politics.
The independent complex tool of state regulation of economy (and
simultaneously by its object) is the public sector in economy. The maximum
form of state regulation of economy is a state economic programming
covering the numerous purposes and all tooling of state regulation of
economy. About public sector and economic programming the speech will go
The basic economic means are:
1) Regulation of the registration rate (discount politics
which is carried out by the central bank);
2) Establishment and change of the sizes of the minimal
reserves, which financial institutions of the country are obliged to
keep in the central bank;
3) Operation of official bodies in the market of valuable
papers, such as issue of the state obligations, trade by them and
Through these tools the state aspires to change a parity of a supply
and demand in the financial market (market of the loan capitals) in a
desirable direction. In process of relative decrease of a role of the
markets of the free capitals in financing capital investments and
especially in connection with reduction of a role of a share stock exchange
and growth of self-maintenance of the large companies by financial assets
the effectiveness of these tools in the most advanced countries has
weakened a little.
The direct state economic regulation is carried out by means of budget
politics. The state budget is an annual plan of the state charges and
sources of the incomes of their financial covering. The project of the
budget annually is discussed and is accepted by a legislative body -
parliament of the country, state or government by assembly. After the end
of financial the year the proxy representatives of the executive authority
report about the activity on mobilisation of the incomes and realisation of
the charges in conformity with accepted in the previous year by the law on
The state budget always represents the compromise reflecting a parity
of forces of the basic groups of carriers of various social economic
interests. The charges of the state budget carry out functions of
political, social and economic regulation.
The first place in the budget charges is occupied with social clauses:
the special grants, education, public health services etc. In it the
overall objective of budget politics, as well as all state economic
politics in general - stabilisation, strengthening and adaptation existing
social economic building to varying conditions is shown. These charges are
called to soften differentiation of social groups, it is inevitable
peculiar to market character.
In expenses for economic needs the budget grants to agriculture are
usually allocated. Any state can not be interested in ruin the peasantry,
farmers. And though in the external economic politics of government
sometimes temporarily endow interests of the domestic manufacturers of the
agrarian goods, supposing foreign agricultural production on a home market
in reply to concession of the trade partners, as a rule governments support
average and large farmers land.
The charges on arms and material maintenance of external politics, and
also administrative charge influence demand for consumer goods and
To the tactical purposes of budget regulation the charges on an
internal state duty (for example, prescheduled repayment of a part of the
debt), sizes of the charges on the credits both grants to the private and
state enterprises, agriculture, on creation and perfection of objects of an
infrastructure, on purchase of arms and military construction serve.
The sizes of these charges essentially influence scales of demand and
size of the investments. During crises and depressions the charges of the
state budget on the economic purposes, as a rule, grow, and in time when of
slowing conjuncture - are reduced.
The charges on crediting of export, insurance of the export credits and
taken out capital financed from the budget, stimulate export and in the
long-term plan improve payment balance, open for a national economy the new
foreign markets, promote strengthening of national currency, maintenance of
deliveries on a home market of the necessary goods because of a boundary.
It is the external economic aspect of politics of the budget charges.
The effectiveness of state regulation of economy with the help of the
budget charges depends, first, on the relative sizes of the spent sums;
secondly, from structure of these charges; thirdly, from efficiency of use
of each unit of spent means.
The main tools of mobilisation of financial assets for a covering of
the state charges are the taxes. They also are widely used for influence on
activity of the subjects of economy. It is a special role of the taxes. But
main role of the taxes - regulating. The state regulation through the taxes
depends in a decisive degree on a choice of tax system, and also from kinds
and sizes of tax privileges.
The taxes in state regulation of economy play a double role: on the one
hand, it is the main source of financing of the state charges, the material
basis of budget politics, on the other hand, is the tool of regulation. A
task of state budget bodies - not simply to impose with the taxes those or
other sources of receipt of means and to create the adjusted mechanism of
influence on economic behaviour of the legal and physical persons is thin.
For this purpose temporarily or selectively given tax discounts, delay of
payment of the taxes are used.
The special place among means of state regulation of economy which is
carried out through the taxes, plays accelerated amortisation of a fixed
capital and connected with it(him) formation(education) and realisation of
the latent reserves carried out within the framework of the sanctions of
the ministries of the finance.
Accelerated amortisation of a fixed capital in modern conditions is by
the main means of stimulation of accumulation, structural changes in
economy and important tool of influence on an economic cycle - the
employment. Essence it in a separation of physical process amortisation of
machines, equipment, buildings and structures from the production costs of
carry of cost of material carriers of a fixed capital on the made goods and
services. Changing the rates and order amortisation, the state regulating
bodies determine that part of the clean profit, which can be released from
the taxes by inclusion in production costs and then is listed in
amortisation fund for financing in the further new capital investments.
At check of correctness of payment of the tax from the profit the tax
inspectors agree with accounting of production costs or services only if
the amortisation deductions were made in conformity with norms solved by
the ministry of the finance. The size of the balance profit, rate and size
of the tax, and also paid dividends depends on it.
The variation of norms accelerated amortisation of a fixed capital is
widely used in all advanced countries as a means of state tactical and
structural politics, and also for stimulation of scientific researches and
introduction of their results, for financing nature protection of measures.
The effect of a variation of norms of amortisation deductions is swept up
within a favourable conjuncture, i.e. in the periods of slowing and crises
the effectiveness of amortisation politics weakens. The worse conjuncture,
the more difficult & is to realise profit, it is less than opportunities
for self-financing, and the amortisation privileges given by the state,
becomes less attractive stimulus for the private investments. The
privileges on accelerated amortisation are equivalent to reduction of
receipts from the taxes from profits in the state budget. Result can be
increase of other taxes or growth state duty.
The state capital investments are carried out substantially in public
sector of economy playing a major role in state regulation of economy. It
is simultaneously object and tool of influence on a private enterprise.
The public sector represents a complex of economic objects, wholly or
partially belonging to the central and local state bodies. The public
sector existed in many countries long before development of capitalism,
including mail, partially transport service, manufacturing of the weapon
etc. On a measure forming systems of state regulation of economy the state
built, redeemed at the private proprietors economic objects, mainly in
sphere of an infrastructure, heavy industry, which functioning was always
favourably and it is necessary for a national economy, but not always it is
favourable from the point of view of the private capital.
In one country the public sector has arisen basically as a result of
nationalisation of a number of branches and enterprises (in France, Italy,
Great Britain, Austria), in others the state built or got ruined economic
objects (in USA, Sweden, Japan). In the first group of the countries the
share of public sector in national riches is higher, than in second.
Significant parts of public sector are objects of an infrastructure, in
the majority unprofitable. Other part - the state enterprises in raw and
power branches, where are required the large investments, and turnover of
the capital slow. Profitability of state-owned firms, as a rule, below,
than private. A part of public sector is packages of the actions of the
mixed private-state companies.
The existence in conditions of a market economy of sectors, which in
the activity is guided by principles a little bit distinguished from
principles of private concerns, allows using public sector for the decision
of nation-wide economic tasks, increasing money of a private enterprise.
The exclusive profit, and frequently and profit in general, is not the
paramount purpose of activity of public sector in an infrastructure, power,
raw branches, НИОКР, in preparation and retraining of the staff, in the
field of protection of an environment, as high profits nobody requires of
these spheres, and the losses become covered from the budget. Therefore
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