public sector has become the supplier of cheap services (in particular,
transport, mail-telegraphic), electric power and raw material, reducing,
thus, costs in private sector.
The public sector as a means of state regulation of economy is actively
used. So, in conditions of deterioration of a conjuncture, the depressions
or crisis, when the private capital investments are reduced, investment in
public sector, as a rule, grow. Thus, the governmental bodies aspire to
counteract recession of manufacture and growth of unemployment. The public
sector plays an appreciable role in state structural politics. The state
creates new objects or expands and reconstructs old in those spheres of
activity, branches or regions, where the private capital connected is not
enough. So, the public sector plays a huge role in economy, preparation and
retraining of the staff. The state-owned firms are engaged also in foreign
trade, export of the capital abroad, frequently acting by the pioneers in
introduction of the national capital in any country (for example,
participation of the German concern “ Volkswagen ”, federal taking place in
property federal and ground governments, in motor industry of Czech).
In the whole public sector serves addition of a private enterprise
there and such measure, where and as far as the motivation for the private
capital appears insufficient. In result the public sector serves to
increase of efficiency of a national economy as a whole and is one of tools
of redistribution of a total internal product (the complete internal
product is a cumulative cost of production of sphere of material
manufacture and spheres of services, irrespective of a national accessory
of the enterprises located in territory of the given country).
The sizes of public sector, its share in national economy, change not
only as a result of new construction and purchase, but also as a
consequence of a privatisation - sale profitable, reconstructed objects of
public sector to the private capital. In 80-th and 90-th years this
tendency appreciably has amplified.
Alongside with the listed tools of state regulation of economy having
internal economy the orientation, an arsenal of means of the external
economic regulation exists.
Practically all levers of influence on process of reproduction inside
the country render essential influence on foreign economic relations:
change of the registration rate, taxation new privileges and grants on the
investment in a fixed capital etc.
However there are also special tools of direct influence on economic
communications with abroad. It is, first of all, a measure of stimulation
of export of goods, services, capitals, scientific and technical and
administrative experience: crediting of export, warranting of the export
credits and investments abroad, introduction or cancellation of
quantitative restrictions, change of the duty in foreign trade; measures on
attraction or restriction of access of the foreign capital in a national
economy, change of conditions of its functioning, qualitative selection
(from the point of view of a branch orientation and technological level)
acting from abroad capital, attraction in the country of a foreign labour,
participation in the international economic organisations, integration
The separate tools of state economic politics can be used in the
various purposes, in various combinations and with different intensity.
Depending on character of the purposes the place of that or other tool in
an arsenal of means of state regulation of economy in the concrete period
The maximum form of state regulation of economy is the state economic
programming. Its task - complex use in the global purposes of all elements
of state regulation of economy.
In process of complication of tasks on regulation of economy of
government of steel to formulate short-term, intermediate term and long-
term tasks to determine the order of their decision and bodies responsible
for performance of these decisions, to allocate necessary means and to
determine the order of financing.
Objects of such target programs usually are the branches (in
particular, agriculture); regions; social sphere (for example, social
economic adaptation settlers, maintenance by their work and habitation);
various directions of scientific researches.
The programs are usual and extreme. The usual intermediate term
programs are made, as a rule, for five years with annual updating and
prolongation for one year (sliding programming). The extreme programs are
developed in critical situations, for example, in conditions of crisis,
mass unemployment dangerous inflation; they, as a rule, short-term. In
toolkits of their realisation the appreciable place is occupied with means
of administrative regulation.
The level of development of state programming in the separate countries
is various. Practically in all countries of market economy the target
programs are carried out. One of oldest - regional-power target program on
development of pool of the river Tennessee in USA, program of development
of nuclear power in France, economic development of the south of Italy.
The national extreme programs on restoration of economy of Southern
Korea after war, on structural reorganisation and privatisation of new
grounds (East Germany) after connection of GDR to Germany are known.
In a citadel of a market economy - USA - the national programming is
not present, but widely target and extreme programs are applied. Obviously,
the distinctions in a degree of development of programming in the separate
countries depend on character and scales of tasks, which economic and
social situation puts before the state.
The subjects of economic programming - official bodies responsible for
drawing up of the programs, their direct realisation and control above
them. The programs are developed by a special state body (for example,
Commissaries on planning in France), and if it is not present, by the
ministries of economy and finance or special ministry system. Thus the
ministry of economy, as a rule, prepares the project of the program,
formulates hierarchy of the purposes, terms and sequence of realisation of
separate measures, names instances which are bearing responsibility for
The ministry of the finance develops the plan of financing of the
program. The representatives of the central bank, unions of the
businessmen, commercial and industrial chambers, trade unions are widely
involved in development of the programs, the various commissions and advice
of the experts are created.
The program and financial plan are annually (in connection with a
sliding principle of prolongation) affirmed by parliament, also of time per
one year the reports on their performance are heard.
The state economic programming has appeared rather effective at the
decision of a number of economic and social tasks, however this efficiency
has objective borders. In conditions of market economy the programming can
be only indicative, that is to carry target-stimulating character.
Nevertheless, it has appeared a rather effective means of the decision of
tasks of a different level; if the state programs frequently also were not
realised completely, all of them - provided social economic development in
a desirable direction. That circumstance is not less important also, that
the programming allows systematically using all means of state regulation
of economy, to avoid discrepancy and inconsistency of regulating measures
of separate official bodies.
State financial stimulation, orders and the purchases within the
framework of the economic programs render appreciable and non-uniform
influence on competitiveness of the separate companies, situation of
branches, regions, of social groups and cause resistance what interests
have appeared restrained. On state programming systems therefore constantly
there is a versatile influence reflecting inconsistent interests of
separate groups, public forces, political groups.
Let's consider the mechanism of state regulation on an example of
politics of the prices.
Contrary to widespread at many to opinion, that in the countries of
market economy money appearing occurs spontaneously, actually prices are
object of constant attention and regulation on the part of the state. The
prices are one of critical points economic and social - political life,
where the group interests of the manufacturers and consumers, wholesale and
retail dealers, trade unions and unions of the businessmen, exporters and
importers collide. The prices mention interests everyone and, naturally,
around of them there is a struggle in parties and parliaments, in
government and on negotiation of the social partners, at the international
The influence on the prices serves to the global purposes of state
regulation of economy, purposes of tactical and structural politics,
struggle with inflation, amplification of national competitiveness in the
world markets and mitigation of social intensity. The influence of state
economic politics on other objects of regulation, in turn, is reflected in
processes of formation of the prices.
The concrete actions in the field of the prices can have short-term or
even the emergency purposes, which can in the given concrete moment not
coincide with other purposes, but at the end they always serve of the
general purpose of state regulation - optimisation of rates both
proportions of economic development and stabilisation of social system
The classical political economy examined the prices, freely developing
in the market, as the main element of the mechanism of maintenance of
balance between a supply and demand. However actually there was never of
ideal general and complete freedom money appearing. All question in a
degree and forms of restriction of free game of the prices. Even if to
abstract from opportunities of arrangement of the manufacturers and
sellers, during all history of capitalism it is possible to look after
influence of the state on the prices.
The tariffs for services of state iron roads, mail, telegraph, sale of
the foodstuffs from state stocks per poor harvest years, customs politics
and indirect taxation essential image influencing on the internal price, -
here the not complete list of measures of state price control for last 100
- 150 years.
The first world war which has begun after it depression and crisis,
have served as the moment of changes in a history of state price control.
K. Muller wrote in this occasion, that the political and economic shocks in
the state and society have caused comprehension that in interests of the
best functioning of a economy, more uniform distribution and avoidance of
danger of revolutionary revolution it would be expedient, that the state
has undertaken care of regulation of economic process and maintenance of
the fair prices.
Attempts to adjust the prices in conditions of inflation and crisis by
the foreign trade politics have appeared insolvent. To the middle of the 30-
th years in many advanced countries with market economy the laws giving to
the state powers on influence on the prices, down to their freezing were
accepted, and the state measures on influence on the prices become a
component of state regulation of economy.
The state measures on price control can carry legislative,
administrative and judicial character. The laws, accepted by parliaments,
create a legal basis of the relations between the economic subjects, and
also between them and state in sphere money appearing. The complex of these
laws represents the price right entering by a component into civil law. On
the basis of this right the authorised state bodies carry out
administrative activity on price control. In case of infringement of the
laws guilty can be involved in the judicial responsibility.
Party fractions independent deputies bring in the administration bills
of the prices, as well as on other economic questions, to parliaments or
government, is direct measures on price control carry out the ministries of
economy, finance and central bank. In a number of the countries there are
ministries of trade, agriculture. They also render influence on money
appearing. In many countries at the end of 60 - in the 70-th years ministry
advice under the prices was created, they have is observant - consultative
In each country at government or its separate bodies there are expert
committees, where the known experts, and advice, in which they meeting the
representatives of trade unions, unions of the peasants, dealers,
businessmen and representatives of state bodies enter; the committees are
called to advise state bodies on the prices and to express the opinion
concerning the price administration bills.
Let's consider state price control in a historical and logic sequence.
The supervision over the prices is the primary form of state activity
in this area. The business not only that from it began state price control;
now supervision over the prices forms the basis, on which all state actions
in this area are based. In supervision over the prices the central
statistical managements are engaged. The independent researches of movement
of the prices frequently will carry out the research centres of trade
unions special commissions under orders of a management of parties,
Overall objective of supervision behind the prices on the part of state
bodies and social partners - change of growth of cost of life for
definition of an index of annual nominal increase of wages and pensions,
and also for finding - out of influence of a rise in prices on production
costs and national competitiveness. The state can affect the prices,
entering or cancelling quantitative and customs restrictions in foreign
trade, entering in integration unions, changing the registration rate,
varying the taxes, carrying out a currency issue etc. The indirect
influence on the prices is rendered, in essence, by(with) all state
regulating actions(shares), with what the purposes they did not serve.
The state intervention in process money appearing is carried out by the
overestimate, authorised by governmental bodies, of production costs
through inclusion in the cost price overestimated amortisation and
deductions in other funds. As a result of it in the whole branches there is
a situation, when “ the costs prop up the price ”, i.e. settlement (instead
of valid) the production costs appear at all enterprises of branch as a
result of the privileges, announced by government, are so high, that the
increase of the prices becomes itself by the understood phenomenon, and as
the privileges are distributed to all branch, internal branches the
competition in conditions of a favourable conjuncture can not be a
sufficient obstacle for a rise in prices.
Direct state intervention in process money appearing is the state
politics of an establishment of the prices on the so-called excise goods.
The direct influence on formation of the prices is rendered with the
state grants. One of kinds of such grants - price - provides decrease of
the prices by special surcharges to the manufacturer or consumer.
The direct influence on the prices and leadership in the prices has a
place in branches, where the share of the state in consumption of the goods
and services is significant, for example, in military industries, in a
number down-branches of construction. The governmental bodies, being by the
constant buyers or customers of the certain kinds of the goods and services
at private concerns, establish under the arrangement with the partners “
the concrete prices ”, which become then base prices for branch.
Effective means of price control is the tax to additional cost. The
manufacturers include this tax in the price of the goods or service, and
difference of change of the rates of this tax directly influences the
The special direction of state economic politics is the state influence
on the foreign trade prices. State encouragement of export, clearing of the
exporters of the taxes (return of the taxes), and in some countries - the
export grants, granting of the soft loans and transport tariffs by an
essential image are reflected in conditions of a price competition in the
Establishment of the prices on mineral raw material extracted in state
mines, on the electric power from state power stations and railway, mail-
telegraphic tariffs - example of fixing of the prices on the goods and
services state sector.
These is artificial undercharges and the tariffs promote decrease of
production costs in a private enterprise and increase of national
competitiveness for the account is artificial of the lowered profitability
or deficiency of these objects of a state ownership.
Fixing of the prices or establishment of limits of their increase in
public sector - typical means of administrative economic regulation. It is
seldom applied and, as a rule, in conditions of a market economy is
inefficient in long-term and even intermediate term aspect. It is used more
often in exclusive cases as a means of easing of social intensity.
National bodies carry out the control above the prices for the certain
kinds of the goods.
Examples can serve an establishment of the prices on coal and black
metals by the European association of steel, annual establishment of
procurement prices on agricultural products in the European union,
participation of the countries in the international conferences,
organisations on separate kinds of the goods, tariffs for an airline
One of the difficulties of the questions of economic politics is the
management of inflation. In the world there are not enough of countries,
where in second half 20 centuries there was no inflation. Though it has
come on change of former illness of market economy, which has become
obviously to weaken, - cyclic crises.
The inflation is a depreciation of money, decrease of their buying
power. Usually inflation has in the basis not one, and some interconnected
reasons, and are shown it not only in increase of the prices - alongside
with open, by price inflation has a place latent, or suppressed, inflation
shown first of all in deficiency, deterioration of quality of the goods. In
literal translation with the Latin inflation means “swelling”, i.e.
overflow of channels of the manipulation by the superfluous paper money
which has been not supplied with the appropriate growth of commodity
The reasons of inflation are diverse. Usually in a basis of inflation
the discrepancy of money demand and commodity weight - demand for the goods
lays and services exceeds the sizes goods turnover, that creates conditions
that the manufacturers and suppliers lifted the prices irrespective of a
level of costs. A disproportion between a supply and demand, excess of the
incomes above the consumer charges can be deviated by deficiency budjet
(charges of the state exceed the incomes); by excessive investment (volume
of the investments exceeds opportunities of economy); by outstripping
growth of wages in comparison with growth of manufacture and increase of
productivity of work; by an any establishment of state-set prices causing
skews in size and structure of demand; by other factors.
Let's refer as an example to a sharp aggravation of deficiency state
budjet in Russia in the second half of 80-th years (1985-1989 years - break
between profitable and account parts of the state budget has grown, with 18
up to 120 billion rub., or from 3,5 % up to 19 % to the national income of
the country). The increased deficiency has put huge harm to the money
manipulation, has urged on inflation. The unjustified money payments
sharply have worsened a situation in the consumer market.
The reasons of occurrence of inflation can be both internal, and
external. To the external reasons concern, in particular, reduction of
receipts from foreign trade, negative results of the foreign trade and
payment balances. The inflationary process in Russia strengthened fall of
the prices in the global market on fuel and colour metals making important
clause of our export, and also adverse conjuncture in the grain market in
conditions of significant import grain. In Hungary, which economy in the
greater measure depends on a condition of foreign economic relations, just
the external factor (deterioration of conditions of international trade,
increase of the external debt) played a hardly probable not determining
role in amplification inflationary processes. Thus the politics of
escalating of export and restraint of import reduced growth internal,
wholesale and consumer costs.
The inflationary rise in prices alongside with the marked factors is
caused by the deeper reasons having basic character. Let's consider on an
example of Russia.
First, as a rule, one of sources of inflationary processes the
deformation of economic structure expressing in essential backlog of
branches of consumer sector at obvious super-changed development of
branches of heavy industry serves and is especial of military mechanical
Рефераты бесплатно, реферат бесплатно, сочинения, курсовые работы, реферат, доклады, рефераты, рефераты скачать, рефераты на тему, курсовые, дипломы, научные работы и многое другое.
При использовании материалов - ссылка на сайт обязательна.