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Рыночная экономика

public sector has become the supplier of cheap services (in particular,

transport, mail-telegraphic), electric power and raw material, reducing,

thus, costs in private sector.

The public sector as a means of state regulation of economy is actively

used. So, in conditions of deterioration of a conjuncture, the depressions

or crisis, when the private capital investments are reduced, investment in

public sector, as a rule, grow. Thus, the governmental bodies aspire to

counteract recession of manufacture and growth of unemployment. The public

sector plays an appreciable role in state structural politics. The state

creates new objects or expands and reconstructs old in those spheres of

activity, branches or regions, where the private capital connected is not

enough. So, the public sector plays a huge role in economy, preparation and

retraining of the staff. The state-owned firms are engaged also in foreign

trade, export of the capital abroad, frequently acting by the pioneers in

introduction of the national capital in any country (for example,

participation of the German concern “ Volkswagen ”, federal taking place in

property federal and ground governments, in motor industry of Czech).

In the whole public sector serves addition of a private enterprise

there and such measure, where and as far as the motivation for the private

capital appears insufficient. In result the public sector serves to

increase of efficiency of a national economy as a whole and is one of tools

of redistribution of a total internal product (the complete internal

product is a cumulative cost of production of sphere of material

manufacture and spheres of services, irrespective of a national accessory

of the enterprises located in territory of the given country).

The sizes of public sector, its share in national economy, change not

only as a result of new construction and purchase, but also as a

consequence of a privatisation - sale profitable, reconstructed objects of

public sector to the private capital. In 80-th and 90-th years this

tendency appreciably has amplified.

Alongside with the listed tools of state regulation of economy having

internal economy the orientation, an arsenal of means of the external

economic regulation exists.

Practically all levers of influence on process of reproduction inside

the country render essential influence on foreign economic relations:

change of the registration rate, taxation new privileges and grants on the

investment in a fixed capital etc.

However there are also special tools of direct influence on economic

communications with abroad. It is, first of all, a measure of stimulation

of export of goods, services, capitals, scientific and technical and

administrative experience: crediting of export, warranting of the export

credits and investments abroad, introduction or cancellation of

quantitative restrictions, change of the duty in foreign trade; measures on

attraction or restriction of access of the foreign capital in a national

economy, change of conditions of its functioning, qualitative selection

(from the point of view of a branch orientation and technological level)

acting from abroad capital, attraction in the country of a foreign labour,

participation in the international economic organisations, integration

state associations.

The separate tools of state economic politics can be used in the

various purposes, in various combinations and with different intensity.

Depending on character of the purposes the place of that or other tool in

an arsenal of means of state regulation of economy in the concrete period

will vary.

The maximum form of state regulation of economy is the state economic

programming. Its task - complex use in the global purposes of all elements

of state regulation of economy.

In process of complication of tasks on regulation of economy of

government of steel to formulate short-term, intermediate term and long-

term tasks to determine the order of their decision and bodies responsible

for performance of these decisions, to allocate necessary means and to

determine the order of financing.

Objects of such target programs usually are the branches (in

particular, agriculture); regions; social sphere (for example, social

economic adaptation settlers, maintenance by their work and habitation);

various directions of scientific researches.

The programs are usual and extreme. The usual intermediate term

programs are made, as a rule, for five years with annual updating and

prolongation for one year (sliding programming). The extreme programs are

developed in critical situations, for example, in conditions of crisis,

mass unemployment dangerous inflation; they, as a rule, short-term. In

toolkits of their realisation the appreciable place is occupied with means

of administrative regulation.

The level of development of state programming in the separate countries

is various. Practically in all countries of market economy the target

programs are carried out. One of oldest - regional-power target program on

development of pool of the river Tennessee in USA, program of development

of nuclear power in France, economic development of the south of Italy.

The national extreme programs on restoration of economy of Southern

Korea after war, on structural reorganisation and privatisation of new

grounds (East Germany) after connection of GDR to Germany are known.

In a citadel of a market economy - USA - the national programming is

not present, but widely target and extreme programs are applied. Obviously,

the distinctions in a degree of development of programming in the separate

countries depend on character and scales of tasks, which economic and

social situation puts before the state.

The subjects of economic programming - official bodies responsible for

drawing up of the programs, their direct realisation and control above

them. The programs are developed by a special state body (for example,

Commissaries on planning in France), and if it is not present, by the

ministries of economy and finance or special ministry system. Thus the

ministry of economy, as a rule, prepares the project of the program,

formulates hierarchy of the purposes, terms and sequence of realisation of

separate measures, names instances which are bearing responsibility for


The ministry of the finance develops the plan of financing of the

program. The representatives of the central bank, unions of the

businessmen, commercial and industrial chambers, trade unions are widely

involved in development of the programs, the various commissions and advice

of the experts are created.

The program and financial plan are annually (in connection with a

sliding principle of prolongation) affirmed by parliament, also of time per

one year the reports on their performance are heard.

The state economic programming has appeared rather effective at the

decision of a number of economic and social tasks, however this efficiency

has objective borders. In conditions of market economy the programming can

be only indicative, that is to carry target-stimulating character.

Nevertheless, it has appeared a rather effective means of the decision of

tasks of a different level; if the state programs frequently also were not

realised completely, all of them - provided social economic development in

a desirable direction. That circumstance is not less important also, that

the programming allows systematically using all means of state regulation

of economy, to avoid discrepancy and inconsistency of regulating measures

of separate official bodies.

State financial stimulation, orders and the purchases within the

framework of the economic programs render appreciable and non-uniform

influence on competitiveness of the separate companies, situation of

branches, regions, of social groups and cause resistance what interests

have appeared restrained. On state programming systems therefore constantly

there is a versatile influence reflecting inconsistent interests of

separate groups, public forces, political groups.

Let's consider the mechanism of state regulation on an example of

politics of the prices.

Contrary to widespread at many to opinion, that in the countries of

market economy money appearing occurs spontaneously, actually prices are

object of constant attention and regulation on the part of the state. The

prices are one of critical points economic and social - political life,

where the group interests of the manufacturers and consumers, wholesale and

retail dealers, trade unions and unions of the businessmen, exporters and

importers collide. The prices mention interests everyone and, naturally,

around of them there is a struggle in parties and parliaments, in

government and on negotiation of the social partners, at the international


The influence on the prices serves to the global purposes of state

regulation of economy, purposes of tactical and structural politics,

struggle with inflation, amplification of national competitiveness in the

world markets and mitigation of social intensity. The influence of state

economic politics on other objects of regulation, in turn, is reflected in

processes of formation of the prices.

The concrete actions in the field of the prices can have short-term or

even the emergency purposes, which can in the given concrete moment not

coincide with other purposes, but at the end they always serve of the

general purpose of state regulation - optimisation of rates both

proportions of economic development and stabilisation of social system

The classical political economy examined the prices, freely developing

in the market, as the main element of the mechanism of maintenance of

balance between a supply and demand. However actually there was never of

ideal general and complete freedom money appearing. All question in a

degree and forms of restriction of free game of the prices. Even if to

abstract from opportunities of arrangement of the manufacturers and

sellers, during all history of capitalism it is possible to look after

influence of the state on the prices.

The tariffs for services of state iron roads, mail, telegraph, sale of

the foodstuffs from state stocks per poor harvest years, customs politics

and indirect taxation essential image influencing on the internal price, -

here the not complete list of measures of state price control for last 100

- 150 years.

The first world war which has begun after it depression and crisis,

have served as the moment of changes in a history of state price control.

K. Muller wrote in this occasion, that the political and economic shocks in

the state and society have caused comprehension that in interests of the

best functioning of a economy, more uniform distribution and avoidance of

danger of revolutionary revolution it would be expedient, that the state

has undertaken care of regulation of economic process and maintenance of

the fair prices.

Attempts to adjust the prices in conditions of inflation and crisis by

the foreign trade politics have appeared insolvent. To the middle of the 30-

th years in many advanced countries with market economy the laws giving to

the state powers on influence on the prices, down to their freezing were

accepted, and the state measures on influence on the prices become a

component of state regulation of economy.

The state measures on price control can carry legislative,

administrative and judicial character. The laws, accepted by parliaments,

create a legal basis of the relations between the economic subjects, and

also between them and state in sphere money appearing. The complex of these

laws represents the price right entering by a component into civil law. On

the basis of this right the authorised state bodies carry out

administrative activity on price control. In case of infringement of the

laws guilty can be involved in the judicial responsibility.

Party fractions independent deputies bring in the administration bills

of the prices, as well as on other economic questions, to parliaments or

government, is direct measures on price control carry out the ministries of

economy, finance and central bank. In a number of the countries there are

ministries of trade, agriculture. They also render influence on money

appearing. In many countries at the end of 60 - in the 70-th years ministry

advice under the prices was created, they have is observant - consultative


In each country at government or its separate bodies there are expert

committees, where the known experts, and advice, in which they meeting the

representatives of trade unions, unions of the peasants, dealers,

businessmen and representatives of state bodies enter; the committees are

called to advise state bodies on the prices and to express the opinion

concerning the price administration bills.

Let's consider state price control in a historical and logic sequence.

The supervision over the prices is the primary form of state activity

in this area. The business not only that from it began state price control;

now supervision over the prices forms the basis, on which all state actions

in this area are based. In supervision over the prices the central

statistical managements are engaged. The independent researches of movement

of the prices frequently will carry out the research centres of trade

unions special commissions under orders of a management of parties,

international organisations.

Overall objective of supervision behind the prices on the part of state

bodies and social partners - change of growth of cost of life for

definition of an index of annual nominal increase of wages and pensions,

and also for finding - out of influence of a rise in prices on production

costs and national competitiveness. The state can affect the prices,

entering or cancelling quantitative and customs restrictions in foreign

trade, entering in integration unions, changing the registration rate,

varying the taxes, carrying out a currency issue etc. The indirect

influence on the prices is rendered, in essence, by(with) all state

regulating actions(shares), with what the purposes they did not serve.

The state intervention in process money appearing is carried out by the

overestimate, authorised by governmental bodies, of production costs

through inclusion in the cost price overestimated amortisation and

deductions in other funds. As a result of it in the whole branches there is

a situation, when “ the costs prop up the price ”, i.e. settlement (instead

of valid) the production costs appear at all enterprises of branch as a

result of the privileges, announced by government, are so high, that the

increase of the prices becomes itself by the understood phenomenon, and as

the privileges are distributed to all branch, internal branches the

competition in conditions of a favourable conjuncture can not be a

sufficient obstacle for a rise in prices.

Direct state intervention in process money appearing is the state

politics of an establishment of the prices on the so-called excise goods.

The direct influence on formation of the prices is rendered with the

state grants. One of kinds of such grants - price - provides decrease of

the prices by special surcharges to the manufacturer or consumer.

The direct influence on the prices and leadership in the prices has a

place in branches, where the share of the state in consumption of the goods

and services is significant, for example, in military industries, in a

number down-branches of construction. The governmental bodies, being by the

constant buyers or customers of the certain kinds of the goods and services

at private concerns, establish under the arrangement with the partners “

the concrete prices ”, which become then base prices for branch.

Effective means of price control is the tax to additional cost. The

manufacturers include this tax in the price of the goods or service, and

difference of change of the rates of this tax directly influences the


The special direction of state economic politics is the state influence

on the foreign trade prices. State encouragement of export, clearing of the

exporters of the taxes (return of the taxes), and in some countries - the

export grants, granting of the soft loans and transport tariffs by an

essential image are reflected in conditions of a price competition in the

world market.

Establishment of the prices on mineral raw material extracted in state

mines, on the electric power from state power stations and railway, mail-

telegraphic tariffs - example of fixing of the prices on the goods and

services state sector.

These is artificial undercharges and the tariffs promote decrease of

production costs in a private enterprise and increase of national

competitiveness for the account is artificial of the lowered profitability

or deficiency of these objects of a state ownership.

Fixing of the prices or establishment of limits of their increase in

public sector - typical means of administrative economic regulation. It is

seldom applied and, as a rule, in conditions of a market economy is

inefficient in long-term and even intermediate term aspect. It is used more

often in exclusive cases as a means of easing of social intensity.

National bodies carry out the control above the prices for the certain

kinds of the goods.

Examples can serve an establishment of the prices on coal and black

metals by the European association of steel, annual establishment of

procurement prices on agricultural products in the European union,

participation of the countries in the international conferences,

organisations on separate kinds of the goods, tariffs for an airline


One of the difficulties of the questions of economic politics is the

management of inflation. In the world there are not enough of countries,

where in second half 20 centuries there was no inflation. Though it has

come on change of former illness of market economy, which has become

obviously to weaken, - cyclic crises.

The inflation is a depreciation of money, decrease of their buying

power. Usually inflation has in the basis not one, and some interconnected

reasons, and are shown it not only in increase of the prices - alongside

with open, by price inflation has a place latent, or suppressed, inflation

shown first of all in deficiency, deterioration of quality of the goods. In

literal translation with the Latin inflation means “swelling”, i.e.

overflow of channels of the manipulation by the superfluous paper money

which has been not supplied with the appropriate growth of commodity


The reasons of inflation are diverse. Usually in a basis of inflation

the discrepancy of money demand and commodity weight - demand for the goods

lays and services exceeds the sizes goods turnover, that creates conditions

that the manufacturers and suppliers lifted the prices irrespective of a

level of costs. A disproportion between a supply and demand, excess of the

incomes above the consumer charges can be deviated by deficiency budjet

(charges of the state exceed the incomes); by excessive investment (volume

of the investments exceeds opportunities of economy); by outstripping

growth of wages in comparison with growth of manufacture and increase of

productivity of work; by an any establishment of state-set prices causing

skews in size and structure of demand; by other factors.

Let's refer as an example to a sharp aggravation of deficiency state

budjet in Russia in the second half of 80-th years (1985-1989 years - break

between profitable and account parts of the state budget has grown, with 18

up to 120 billion rub., or from 3,5 % up to 19 % to the national income of

the country). The increased deficiency has put huge harm to the money

manipulation, has urged on inflation. The unjustified money payments

sharply have worsened a situation in the consumer market.

The reasons of occurrence of inflation can be both internal, and

external. To the external reasons concern, in particular, reduction of

receipts from foreign trade, negative results of the foreign trade and

payment balances. The inflationary process in Russia strengthened fall of

the prices in the global market on fuel and colour metals making important

clause of our export, and also adverse conjuncture in the grain market in

conditions of significant import grain. In Hungary, which economy in the

greater measure depends on a condition of foreign economic relations, just

the external factor (deterioration of conditions of international trade,

increase of the external debt) played a hardly probable not determining

role in amplification inflationary processes. Thus the politics of

escalating of export and restraint of import reduced growth internal,

wholesale and consumer costs.

The inflationary rise in prices alongside with the marked factors is

caused by the deeper reasons having basic character. Let's consider on an

example of Russia.

First, as a rule, one of sources of inflationary processes the

deformation of economic structure expressing in essential backlog of

branches of consumer sector at obvious super-changed development of

branches of heavy industry serves and is especial of military mechanical


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