|I Economic sciences. |
| 1. Microeconomic. |
| 2. Macroeconomic |
|II State regulations of economy. |
|1. Brief historical information. |
|2. Concept of state economic politics. |
|3. Subjects of state regulation of economy. |
| Four communication lines of economic interests with |
| By state economic politics. |
| 1). Carriers of economic interests. |
| 2). Expressers of economic interests. |
| 3). The executors of economic interests. |
| 4). The return communication line. |
| 5). The questionnaire. |
|4. Objects of state regulation of economy. |
| 1). State anticyclic politics. |
| 2). State regulation of economy in area |
| Branch and territorial structure. |
| 3). Accumulation of the capital. |
| 4). Regulation of employment. |
| 5). The money manipulation. |
| 6). A condition of payment balance. |
| 7). The prices. |
|5. General purpose of state regulation |
|Economy and tree of the purposes. |
|6. Means of state regulation of economy. |
| 1). Administrative means. |
| 2). Economic means. |
| 3). The state budget. |
| 4). The taxes. |
| 5). Accelerated amortisation. |
| 6). Public sector. |
| 7). Means of the external economic regulation. |
|7. State economic programming. |
| 1). Objects of the programs. |
| 2). The usual and extreme programs. |
| 3). The target programs. |
| 4). The subjects of economic programming. |
| 5). Borders of economic programming. |
|8. Mechanism of state regulation of economy |
| On an example of the prices. |
| 1). The price right. |
| 2). Supervision of the state over the prices. |
| 3). Indirect influence of the state on the prices. |
| 4). Direct state intervention in process of money appearing. |
| 5). Influence state sector. |
| 6). The contribution of public sector to process |
| Price control. |
|9. Inflation. |
| 1). The reasons of occurrence of inflation. |
| a). Internal. |
| b). External. |
| 2). Types of inflation. |
| a). Slow inflation. |
| b). Galloping inflation. |
| c). Hyperinflation. |
| 3). Consequences of inflation. |
| a). Positive functions. |
| b). Negative consequences. |
| 4). Management of inflation. |
|10. Unemployment. |
| 1). The market of work. |
| 2). Classification of the unemployed. |
| 3). The formula of calculation of monthly average |
| Rate of unemployment. |
| 4). The concepts treating a phenomenon of unemployment. |
| 5). Directions of state regulation |
| Market of work. |
| 6). Labour exchange. |
|11. Stages of state regulation of economy. |
|III Lists of the used literature. |
“The People, who have never systematically learned the economic theory,
are similar to deaf persons, which try to estimate sounding an orchestra ”.
There are fields of knowledge and vital experience, about which, it
seems any of us can judge. Except for politics, to such spheres concern
medicine and, certainly, economy. It is not casual, you see economy –
science is empirical, it connection with practice is direct. Each of us,
irrespective of preparation, collides daily with the economic phenomena. We
are all workers - create values or we raise the qualification, we receive
the incomes, we address to the market, we watch (keep up) the prices, we
are the consumers. The economy studies “homo economics” - economic man, his
actions and interests. Well as in medicine, where for statement of the
diagnosis it is necessary to know the functioning of a healthy organism,
first of all to understand the laws of functioning of healthy economy.
The economic science is called to define how to use the limited
resources maximum effectively - natural stocks, capitals, labour reserves.
Like other branches of knowledge, the economy includes a set of axioms and
proofs, suitable for the analysis in any concrete conditions. And in this
narrow sense it can not be national, as well as there can not be a American
physics or German mathematics. The prices of the goods everywhere are
defined by a parity of a supply and demand, with the growth of the income
there is a reduction of its consumed part and increase gathering.
But the economy has basic difference from exact and natural sciences:
it has business not with the separate man on a uninhabited island, but with
the member of a society subject to influence of traditions, national
mentality and political institutes. The toolkit of the economist has
therefore national specificity.
The science is formed approximately the same as the tree grows or the
building is constructed. The great economists of the past have put in pawn
the base, have created the theory named as microeconomy. As initial item
for the analysis a facilities of the businessman and farmer were taken. The
microeconomy studies the relation between the businessmen (competition),
businessmen and hired workers, sellers and buyers. It formulates the laws:
supplies and demand, rarity-decreasing income, limiting productivity of
work or capital. The microeconomy is directly connected to enterprise
activity, at the same time being a management for business.
The economic theory created in 18 - 19 centuries is named classical, it
answered requirements of development of an industrial society based on a
private property and freedom of an economic choice. The creativity of
ingenious Adam Smite for economy is compared to the invention of a wheel.
Gradually national economy is turning to complex systems of branches
forming a global economy. Periodically repeating economic crisises, chronic
- unemployment and inflation become a rule.
Business practice includes problems, which are not solved through
traditional means. The economists begin to be interested in questions of
general balance, cumulative demand, money manipulation.
The 20 centuries appeared to be a stage of macroeconomy. The large
system is not only set of small subsystems - firms and branches, but also a
new quality. Its actions are operated by other mechanisms. Macrosystem can
not be described by categories of microsystem (price, profit, competition
etc.). New techniques and tools here are necessary.
The Macroeconomic analysis becomes a basis of state politics, development
of the programs, selective (“dot”) methods of influence. But macroeconomic
is knowledge that works not far from business. You see such formulas, as
the return dependence between inflation and unemployment in scale of a
society, or between bank percent and rates of growth of a total product,
between growth of inflation and downturn of the exchange rate of domestic
currency is necessary to know, even to expect changes of a conjuncture and
probable general idea of government, direction of state regulation of
“ Most of all laws were created in vague times of republic... ”
The state regulation of economy has a long history. The practice here
outstrips the theory. During early capitalism in Europe there was a
centralised control above the prices, quality of the goods and services,
interest rates and foreign trade.
17 century – is a century of the pioneers of the normative economic
theory - wrote that only detailed management on the part of government is
capable to supply the order in economic sphere. They saw in a state
management a means of ensuring social validity.
With transition to capitalism and appearing of free competition, many
aspects of “pioneers” theory were destroyed. The approach of people who
based a classical economy (18 centuries), limiting state intervention in
economic life, has the historical explanation. You see in that period
economy was ruled by the market and freedom of a choice. In economic sense
freedom assumes two main components: the right, to a private property
protected by the law and independence of acceptance of the decisions. In 18
- 19 centuries the economic role of the state was reduced, basically, to
protection of these primary rights. The XX century was market by almost
universal strengthening of economic presence of the state.
From the second half of 19 century national manufacture has achieved
unprecedented scales. The end of the century is connected with explosion,
jump in scientific - technical development and appearance of new branches.
All these circumstance needed requirement for co-ordination, for
maintenance of proportions on macro-level, for anticyclic regulation.
The amplification of state regulation was dictated by the purposes of
preparation to wars, their conducting, maintenance of war-protection. The
whole system of measures including compulsory movements system (GERMANY),
protectionism (Japan) was developed. The army-industrial complexes closely
connected to government were formed.
The state regulation of economy was necessary for realisation of social
politics, for general strategy socialisation in a broad sense. Collective
consumption or satisfaction of public requirements (public health services,
education, support deprived and others) are impossible without use of state
levers and organisations.
And, at last, it would be desirable to emphasise, meaning day today's,
need for state support and sometimes organisations of fundamental
scientific researches, and also protection of environment.
The state regulation, thus, is caused by occurrence of new economic
needs, with which the market on the nature can not consult.
And, though the similar regulation in modern market economy is carried
out in much smaller scales, than in administrative - command system,
nevertheless here economic role of the state is great, is special in
comparison with the system of a free competition.
The state regulation of economy in conditions of a market economy
represents system of typical measures of legislative, executive and
supervising character which is carried out by competent official bodies and
public organisations with the purposes of stabilisation and the adaptation
existing socially - of economic system, and conditions.
In the process of development of a market economy the economic and
social problems became aggravated, they could not be solved automatically
on the basis of a private property. The necessity of the significant
investments, has appeared necessary for continuation of reproduction in
national scales; branch and social crises, mass unemployment, the
infringements in the money manipulation become aggravated competition in
the global markets required state economic politics.
Theoretically concept state economic wider than concept of state
regulation of economy, as first can be based on a principle of non-
interference of the state in economic life (known principle of economic
liberalism laisser faire - laisser passer). In modern conditions the non-
interference of the state in socially - economic processes is impossible.
Disputes about necessity of state regulation of economy, and about its
scales, forms and intensity are conducted for a long time. Therefore terms
“ state regulation of economy ” and “ state economic politics ” are
The objective opportunity of state regulation occurs with the
achievement of the certain level of economic development, concentration of
manufacture and capital. The necessity of transforming this opportunity
into the validity consists in increase of problems, difficulties.
In modern conditions the state regulation of economy is a component of
reproduction. It solves various tasks: for example, stimulation of economic
growth, regulation of employment, encouragement of progressive shifts in
branch and regional structure, support of export. The concrete directions,
forms, scales of state regulation of economy are defined by character and
acuteness of economic and social problems in this or that country in the
For understanding of the mechanism of state regulation of economy it is
expedient to characterise its subjects, objects, purposes, means, and also
stages of its development.
The subjects of economic politics are the carriers and executors of
The carriers of economic interests are social groups distinguished from
each other on a number of attributes: property, the incomes, on kinds of
activity at the similar incomes, on trades, branch and regional interests.
They are hired workers and owners of the enterprises, farmers and land
proprietors, businessmen managers and the shareholders, civil servants etc.
Each of these groups has interests caused by their social economic rule,
and also accessory to that or other region, kind of activity.
The representatives of these groups individually express the interests
in mass media, on meetings and addressing with the requests, protests,
wishes to official bodies responsible for economic and social politics.
It is the first communication line of economic interests with the state
device regulating an economy.
The carriers of economic interests are incorporated in the advanced
countries of a market economy in numerous unions, association: it is trade
unions, unions of the businessmen, farmers, various dealers, students,
brokers and т. Item. Some of these unions total millions members (trade
unions, for example), others play a huge role in a national economy because
of the capitals, represented by them, (unions of the businessmen, bank
establishments, trade chambers). There are also absolutely insignificant
associations, for example, association of the physical and legal persons
interested in a privatisation of the concrete ground area, belonging to
municipality. Such associations are expressers of economic interests.
Most powerful expressers of economic interests are unions of the
businessmen and trade unions. They carry out the own concepts of social
economic politics, aspiring to render the maximal influence on state
economic politics. At expressers of economic interests there are printed
editions, significant financial resources, centres of training of personnel
and public relations. The unions of the businessmen and trade unions are
constructed to a branch and territorial attribute, all local and branch
unions hierarchically are subordinated to the national centres, which, in
turn, enter into the international, regional and global associations.
The recommendations, advises, memorandums, various channels of
influence these expressers of economic interests on bodies of state
economic regulation is the second communication line of economic interests
with state economic politics.
Expressers of social economic, political, religious, cultural,
ecological, specific regional interests are the political parties, which
frequently work under a banner of national interests.
To carry out in life the program of state economic politics there will
be a subject of state economic regulation - executors of economic
interests. It is the main, third line of transformation of private-
individual economic interests in state economic politics.
The executors of economic interests - subjects of state regulation of
economy - are the bodies of three branches of authorities constructed by a
hierarchical principal, and also central national bank. The tendency of
amplification of a role of the central bodies of authority among the
subjects of state economic regulation is appreciable more and more
independent becomes the executive bodies.
Interesting from the point of view of study of the mechanism of state
regulation of economy the merge of the subjects of state and private
economic politics and occurrence is as a result of it of new regulating
bodies which are not entered theoretically in the classical circuit of
parliamentary or presidential republic. For example, the body from the
representatives of unions of the businessmen, trade unions and executive
authority for regulation of the tariff agreements between the businessmen
and workers are created. The committees, advice on maintenance or
development of separate branches from the representatives of the ministry
of economy and branch unions of the businessmen are organised. Similar
advice is created for realisation of the state regional programs. The basic
part of such bodies formally carries out advisory activity, but actually
decisive image influence state economic politics. Various advice of the
experts concerns to such bodies at government, ministries of economy,
finance, social maintenance, their separate management, central bank,
governments of state iron roads, mail and telegraph etc.
Other group of government-private regulation of economy is advice on
spheres of activity, for example, scientific and technical, army-
industrial, on regional politics, on internal waterways of the messages, on
vocational training. As against branch advice in them the representatives
of the most different branches, banks, various funds, associations of the
engineers, trade unions, public movements enter alongside with the
employees of governmental bodies and experts. Their recommendations concern
the basic orientation of state economic politics, its directions of an
expenditure of means from the budget and various funds.
It is the fourth communication line between carriers of economic
interests and state regulation of economy: carriers (in this case
interested firms) – expressers (unions of the businessmen) – advice at
state regulating bodies. On this line there is an updating of interests of
a private enterprise to interest others social, professional, public (for
example, ecological) groups.
There are numerous opportunities of influence of carriers and
expressers of economic interests on state economic politics: through bodies
of the mass information, demonstration and manifestation, tax of the
signatures, manipulation in courts - from local up to international,
campaign of civil disobedience.
Feedback between state regulation of economy and carriers of economic
interests rather rigid.
First, the success of state regulation of economy is shown in rates of
growth, improvement of structure of economy, growth of employment, healthy
payment balance, decrease of rates of inflation, increase of a vital level.
Secondly, the successes of state regulation of economy are reflected in
parameters which are not always given in to exact quantitative measurement:
in a level of social intensity (strike, demonstrations, various
performances), estimation of state regulation of economy by mass media,
condition of an environment, quality of life in cities.
Thirdly, carriers of economic interests are direct and through the
associations supported or do not support government. The loss of trust of
the voters and associations of economic interests to a ruling party or
parties is a main line of a feedback between state economic politics and
carriers of economic interests.
The bodies of state regulation of economy can not afford to find out
reaction of carriers of economic interests to a general orientation and
concrete measures of state economic politics during choices, to wait, when
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