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Рыночная экономика

Рыночная экономика

The contents

|I Economic sciences. |

| 1. Microeconomic. |

| 2. Macroeconomic |

|II State regulations of economy. |

|1. Brief historical information. |

|2. Concept of state economic politics. |

|3. Subjects of state regulation of economy. |

| Four communication lines of economic interests with |

| By state economic politics. |

| 1). Carriers of economic interests. |

| 2). Expressers of economic interests. |

| 3). The executors of economic interests. |

| 4). The return communication line. |

| 5). The questionnaire. |

|4. Objects of state regulation of economy. |

| 1). State anticyclic politics. |

| 2). State regulation of economy in area |

| Branch and territorial structure. |

| 3). Accumulation of the capital. |

| 4). Regulation of employment. |

| 5). The money manipulation. |

| 6). A condition of payment balance. |

| 7). The prices. |

|5. General purpose of state regulation |

|Economy and tree of the purposes. |

|6. Means of state regulation of economy. |

| 1). Administrative means. |

| 2). Economic means. |

| 3). The state budget. |

| 4). The taxes. |

| 5). Accelerated amortisation. |

| 6). Public sector. |

| 7). Means of the external economic regulation. |

|7. State economic programming. |

| 1). Objects of the programs. |

| 2). The usual and extreme programs. |

| 3). The target programs. |

| 4). The subjects of economic programming. |

| 5). Borders of economic programming. |

|8. Mechanism of state regulation of economy |

| On an example of the prices. |

| 1). The price right. |

| 2). Supervision of the state over the prices. |

| 3). Indirect influence of the state on the prices. |

| 4). Direct state intervention in process of money appearing. |

| 5). Influence state sector. |

| 6). The contribution of public sector to process |

| Price control. |

|9. Inflation. |

| 1). The reasons of occurrence of inflation. |

| a). Internal. |

| b). External. |

| 2). Types of inflation. |

| a). Slow inflation. |

| b). Galloping inflation. |

| c). Hyperinflation. |

| 3). Consequences of inflation. |

| a). Positive functions. |

| b). Negative consequences. |

| 4). Management of inflation. |

|10. Unemployment. |

| 1). The market of work. |

| 2). Classification of the unemployed. |

| 3). The formula of calculation of monthly average |

| Rate of unemployment. |

| 4). The concepts treating a phenomenon of unemployment. |

| 5). Directions of state regulation |

| Market of work. |

| 6). Labour exchange. |

|11. Stages of state regulation of economy. |

| |

|III Lists of the used literature. |

“The People, who have never systematically learned the economic theory,

are similar to deaf persons, which try to estimate sounding an orchestra ”.

P. Samulson

There are fields of knowledge and vital experience, about which, it

seems any of us can judge. Except for politics, to such spheres concern

medicine and, certainly, economy. It is not casual, you see economy –

science is empirical, it connection with practice is direct. Each of us,

irrespective of preparation, collides daily with the economic phenomena. We

are all workers - create values or we raise the qualification, we receive

the incomes, we address to the market, we watch (keep up) the prices, we

are the consumers. The economy studies “homo economics” - economic man, his

actions and interests. Well as in medicine, where for statement of the

diagnosis it is necessary to know the functioning of a healthy organism,

first of all to understand the laws of functioning of healthy economy.

The economic science is called to define how to use the limited

resources maximum effectively - natural stocks, capitals, labour reserves.

Like other branches of knowledge, the economy includes a set of axioms and

proofs, suitable for the analysis in any concrete conditions. And in this

narrow sense it can not be national, as well as there can not be a American

physics or German mathematics. The prices of the goods everywhere are

defined by a parity of a supply and demand, with the growth of the income

there is a reduction of its consumed part and increase gathering.

But the economy has basic difference from exact and natural sciences:

it has business not with the separate man on a uninhabited island, but with

the member of a society subject to influence of traditions, national

mentality and political institutes. The toolkit of the economist has

therefore national specificity.

The science is formed approximately the same as the tree grows or the

building is constructed. The great economists of the past have put in pawn

the base, have created the theory named as microeconomy. As initial item

for the analysis a facilities of the businessman and farmer were taken. The

microeconomy studies the relation between the businessmen (competition),

businessmen and hired workers, sellers and buyers. It formulates the laws:

supplies and demand, rarity-decreasing income, limiting productivity of

work or capital. The microeconomy is directly connected to enterprise

activity, at the same time being a management for business.

The economic theory created in 18 - 19 centuries is named classical, it

answered requirements of development of an industrial society based on a

private property and freedom of an economic choice. The creativity of

ingenious Adam Smite for economy is compared to the invention of a wheel.

Gradually national economy is turning to complex systems of branches

forming a global economy. Periodically repeating economic crisises, chronic

- unemployment and inflation become a rule.

Business practice includes problems, which are not solved through

traditional means. The economists begin to be interested in questions of

general balance, cumulative demand, money manipulation.

The 20 centuries appeared to be a stage of macroeconomy. The large

system is not only set of small subsystems - firms and branches, but also a

new quality. Its actions are operated by other mechanisms. Macrosystem can

not be described by categories of microsystem (price, profit, competition

etc.). New techniques and tools here are necessary.

The Macroeconomic analysis becomes a basis of state politics, development

of the programs, selective (“dot”) methods of influence. But macroeconomic

is knowledge that works not far from business. You see such formulas, as

the return dependence between inflation and unemployment in scale of a

society, or between bank percent and rates of growth of a total product,

between growth of inflation and downturn of the exchange rate of domestic

currency is necessary to know, even to expect changes of a conjuncture and

probable general idea of government, direction of state regulation of


“ Most of all laws were created in vague times of republic... ”

The state regulation of economy has a long history. The practice here

outstrips the theory. During early capitalism in Europe there was a

centralised control above the prices, quality of the goods and services,

interest rates and foreign trade.

17 century – is a century of the pioneers of the normative economic

theory - wrote that only detailed management on the part of government is

capable to supply the order in economic sphere. They saw in a state

management a means of ensuring social validity.

With transition to capitalism and appearing of free competition, many

aspects of “pioneers” theory were destroyed. The approach of people who

based a classical economy (18 centuries), limiting state intervention in

economic life, has the historical explanation. You see in that period

economy was ruled by the market and freedom of a choice. In economic sense

freedom assumes two main components: the right, to a private property

protected by the law and independence of acceptance of the decisions. In 18

- 19 centuries the economic role of the state was reduced, basically, to

protection of these primary rights. The XX century was market by almost

universal strengthening of economic presence of the state.

From the second half of 19 century national manufacture has achieved

unprecedented scales. The end of the century is connected with explosion,

jump in scientific - technical development and appearance of new branches.

All these circumstance needed requirement for co-ordination, for

maintenance of proportions on macro-level, for anticyclic regulation.

The amplification of state regulation was dictated by the purposes of

preparation to wars, their conducting, maintenance of war-protection. The

whole system of measures including compulsory movements system (GERMANY),

protectionism (Japan) was developed. The army-industrial complexes closely

connected to government were formed.

The state regulation of economy was necessary for realisation of social

politics, for general strategy socialisation in a broad sense. Collective

consumption or satisfaction of public requirements (public health services,

education, support deprived and others) are impossible without use of state

levers and organisations.

And, at last, it would be desirable to emphasise, meaning day today's,

need for state support and sometimes organisations of fundamental

scientific researches, and also protection of environment.

The state regulation, thus, is caused by occurrence of new economic

needs, with which the market on the nature can not consult.

And, though the similar regulation in modern market economy is carried

out in much smaller scales, than in administrative - command system,

nevertheless here economic role of the state is great, is special in

comparison with the system of a free competition.

The state regulation of economy in conditions of a market economy

represents system of typical measures of legislative, executive and

supervising character which is carried out by competent official bodies and

public organisations with the purposes of stabilisation and the adaptation

existing socially - of economic system, and conditions.

In the process of development of a market economy the economic and

social problems became aggravated, they could not be solved automatically

on the basis of a private property. The necessity of the significant

investments, has appeared necessary for continuation of reproduction in

national scales; branch and social crises, mass unemployment, the

infringements in the money manipulation become aggravated competition in

the global markets required state economic politics.

Theoretically concept state economic wider than concept of state

regulation of economy, as first can be based on a principle of non-

interference of the state in economic life (known principle of economic

liberalism laisser faire - laisser passer). In modern conditions the non-

interference of the state in socially - economic processes is impossible.

Disputes about necessity of state regulation of economy, and about its

scales, forms and intensity are conducted for a long time. Therefore terms

“ state regulation of economy ” and “ state economic politics ” are

presently identical.

The objective opportunity of state regulation occurs with the

achievement of the certain level of economic development, concentration of

manufacture and capital. The necessity of transforming this opportunity

into the validity consists in increase of problems, difficulties.

In modern conditions the state regulation of economy is a component of

reproduction. It solves various tasks: for example, stimulation of economic

growth, regulation of employment, encouragement of progressive shifts in

branch and regional structure, support of export. The concrete directions,

forms, scales of state regulation of economy are defined by character and

acuteness of economic and social problems in this or that country in the

concrete period.

For understanding of the mechanism of state regulation of economy it is

expedient to characterise its subjects, objects, purposes, means, and also

stages of its development.

The subjects of economic politics are the carriers and executors of

economic interests.

The carriers of economic interests are social groups distinguished from

each other on a number of attributes: property, the incomes, on kinds of

activity at the similar incomes, on trades, branch and regional interests.

They are hired workers and owners of the enterprises, farmers and land

proprietors, businessmen managers and the shareholders, civil servants etc.

Each of these groups has interests caused by their social economic rule,

and also accessory to that or other region, kind of activity.

The representatives of these groups individually express the interests

in mass media, on meetings and addressing with the requests, protests,

wishes to official bodies responsible for economic and social politics.

It is the first communication line of economic interests with the state

device regulating an economy.

The carriers of economic interests are incorporated in the advanced

countries of a market economy in numerous unions, association: it is trade

unions, unions of the businessmen, farmers, various dealers, students,

brokers and т. Item. Some of these unions total millions members (trade

unions, for example), others play a huge role in a national economy because

of the capitals, represented by them, (unions of the businessmen, bank

establishments, trade chambers). There are also absolutely insignificant

associations, for example, association of the physical and legal persons

interested in a privatisation of the concrete ground area, belonging to

municipality. Such associations are expressers of economic interests.

Most powerful expressers of economic interests are unions of the

businessmen and trade unions. They carry out the own concepts of social

economic politics, aspiring to render the maximal influence on state

economic politics. At expressers of economic interests there are printed

editions, significant financial resources, centres of training of personnel

and public relations. The unions of the businessmen and trade unions are

constructed to a branch and territorial attribute, all local and branch

unions hierarchically are subordinated to the national centres, which, in

turn, enter into the international, regional and global associations.

The recommendations, advises, memorandums, various channels of

influence these expressers of economic interests on bodies of state

economic regulation is the second communication line of economic interests

with state economic politics.

Expressers of social economic, political, religious, cultural,

ecological, specific regional interests are the political parties, which

frequently work under a banner of national interests.

To carry out in life the program of state economic politics there will

be a subject of state economic regulation - executors of economic

interests. It is the main, third line of transformation of private-

individual economic interests in state economic politics.

The executors of economic interests - subjects of state regulation of

economy - are the bodies of three branches of authorities constructed by a

hierarchical principal, and also central national bank. The tendency of

amplification of a role of the central bodies of authority among the

subjects of state economic regulation is appreciable more and more

independent becomes the executive bodies.

Interesting from the point of view of study of the mechanism of state

regulation of economy the merge of the subjects of state and private

economic politics and occurrence is as a result of it of new regulating

bodies which are not entered theoretically in the classical circuit of

parliamentary or presidential republic. For example, the body from the

representatives of unions of the businessmen, trade unions and executive

authority for regulation of the tariff agreements between the businessmen

and workers are created. The committees, advice on maintenance or

development of separate branches from the representatives of the ministry

of economy and branch unions of the businessmen are organised. Similar

advice is created for realisation of the state regional programs. The basic

part of such bodies formally carries out advisory activity, but actually

decisive image influence state economic politics. Various advice of the

experts concerns to such bodies at government, ministries of economy,

finance, social maintenance, their separate management, central bank,

governments of state iron roads, mail and telegraph etc.

Other group of government-private regulation of economy is advice on

spheres of activity, for example, scientific and technical, army-

industrial, on regional politics, on internal waterways of the messages, on

vocational training. As against branch advice in them the representatives

of the most different branches, banks, various funds, associations of the

engineers, trade unions, public movements enter alongside with the

employees of governmental bodies and experts. Their recommendations concern

the basic orientation of state economic politics, its directions of an

expenditure of means from the budget and various funds.

It is the fourth communication line between carriers of economic

interests and state regulation of economy: carriers (in this case

interested firms) – expressers (unions of the businessmen) – advice at

state regulating bodies. On this line there is an updating of interests of

a private enterprise to interest others social, professional, public (for

example, ecological) groups.

There are numerous opportunities of influence of carriers and

expressers of economic interests on state economic politics: through bodies

of the mass information, demonstration and manifestation, tax of the

signatures, manipulation in courts - from local up to international,

campaign of civil disobedience.

Feedback between state regulation of economy and carriers of economic

interests rather rigid.

First, the success of state regulation of economy is shown in rates of

growth, improvement of structure of economy, growth of employment, healthy

payment balance, decrease of rates of inflation, increase of a vital level.

Secondly, the successes of state regulation of economy are reflected in

parameters which are not always given in to exact quantitative measurement:

in a level of social intensity (strike, demonstrations, various

performances), estimation of state regulation of economy by mass media,

condition of an environment, quality of life in cities.

Thirdly, carriers of economic interests are direct and through the

associations supported or do not support government. The loss of trust of

the voters and associations of economic interests to a ruling party or

parties is a main line of a feedback between state economic politics and

carriers of economic interests.

The bodies of state regulation of economy can not afford to find out

reaction of carriers of economic interests to a general orientation and

concrete measures of state economic politics during choices, to wait, when

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